Tympanoplasty (eardrum repair) refers to the surgical procedure that is performed to correct the ruptured eardrum or rebuild a perforated eardrum (tympanic membrane) or the middle ear’s tiny bones. Large defects caused due to severe infection or any accident require the surgery to restore the perforated eardrum to avoid further complications such as hearing loss. The procedure involves making a cut behind the ear to explore the middle ear. The graft of fascia or the cartilage is used to heal the hole in the eardrum. Either you bone or a synthetic bone is used to repair the bones of hearing. The surgeon closes the incision with stitches that are removed within 2 weeks of the operation. However, after four to six weeks after the operation, the patient needs to visit the doctor for a thorough hearing test.

Tympanoplasty in India

With over 90 percent success rate of Tympanoplasty, India has all the latest medical advancements and technology, and skilled surgeons. Post-surgery care involves medications and some precautions.  

Cost Comparison

India has the best facilities along with a skilled panel at very affordable rates. The expenses in India are 30% of that in most western countries. The cost of Eardrum surgery varies according to the severity of the condition and the method used for surgery. The cost of Tympanoplasty ranges from $2,700 to $4,100. The cost of the surgery in India is affordable with all the latest advancements, machines and technology, and the facilities provided by the hospitals are comparable to the best medical tourists’ destinations such as the US, UK, Mexico, Australia, and Canada.

Treatment and Cost

10

Total Days
In Country

2 No. Travelers

2 Day in Hospital

8 Days Outside Hospital

Treatment cost starts from

USD 2300

Hospitals

People from all age groups can get affected by ear disorders and hearing impairment problems. In the United States, a survey revealed that under the age of 65, over 60 per cent of the population suffers from problems related to hearing loss. However, almost 25 per cent of people aged above 65 experience a significant loss of hearing. Thankfully, different types of ENT surgeries are available to treat problems related to the ear.

Most often, people are diagnosed with problems related to the eardrum, or tympanum, and the infection in the cells of the mastoid bone. The tympanum is the thin membranous structure present between the outer and the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit on it and this enables us to hear.

A repair surgery called tympanoplasty is required to treat a perforation or hole in the eardrum. The middle ear is sterile but due to rupture of the eardrum, an infection can also occur. It may also be required for repairing of tiny bones present behind the eardrum or ossicles in the mastoid bone. This repair is known as mastoidectomy.

Tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy are therefore conducted together in many cases. This procedure is known as tympano-mastoidectomy.

Causes of Hearing Loss

There are several reasons that may cause loss of hearing, including the following:

  • Birth defect

  • An ear infection that has grown very severe and left untreated for long

  • The injury suffered by the ear

  • Ear subjected to excessive levels of noise

  • Hearing loss as a result of age

  • Other reasons

Symptoms of Hole in Eardrum

Some of the common symptoms of a puncture in eardrum include the following:

  • Sharp pain in the ear that disappears abruptly

  • Excessive pressure, which will suddenly disappear with the rupture and pus formation in the ear

  • Loss of hearing

  • Dizziness

Types of Tympanoplasty

Type 1 tympanoplasty or myringoplasty is the surgery that ensures restoration of the eardrum that got perforated with drafting

Type II tympanoplasty addresses membrane perforations with erosion in the bone malleus. Grafting is done on the incus bone or in the remains of the malleus.

Type III tympanoplasty is meant for destruction of two ossicles and intact and mobile stapes bone. A graft is placed on the stapes and it provides protection for the total assembly.

Type IV tympanoplasty is useful for cases of ossicular destruction, which has all or part of the arch of stapes included. A graft is placed around the mobile stapes footplate

Type V tympanoplasty is useful when the footplate of the stapes bone is fixed. 

For treating Cholesteatoma, tympanoplasty can be combined with stapedectomy and mastoidectomy and in many cases, a second operation is required to ensure the infection is totally eradicated.

The tympanoplasty surgery is performed with intravenous sedation and local anaesthesia. An incision is made into the ear canal section and from the bony ear canal, the remaining eardrum is elevated and lifted forward. Under the operating microscope, the ear structures can be seen clearly. An incision behind the ear is made if the hole is very large or far forward. It ensures that the entire outer ear is forwarded, giving better access to the perforation.

The perforated remnant part is rotated forward after the hole is exposed and now the ossicles are inspected. Scar tissue and bands can surround the bones and they are removed with a laser or micro hooks. Now the ossicular chain is pressed to check its mobility and functionality. If it is found to be mobile, then the rest of the surgery aims at repairing the defect of the drum.

From the tragus, which is the cartilaginous lobe of skin in front of the ear, or from the back of the ear, a tissue is taken. A gelatin sponge is positioned under the drum, which is absorbable and it supports the graft. Underneath the remaining drum remnant, the graft is inserted and folded back to close the perforation. The incision is closed with the help of stitches. On the outside of the ear canal, a sterile patch is placed and the patient can then be transferred to the recovery room.

If the bones in the ear suffer from erosion, then ossicular reconstruction is advised. At times it can be determined before surgery but in other cases, erosion is visible only when the ear is completely opened under the microscope.  The reconstruction can happen at the time of the eardrum construction. Bone erosion can happen at the tip of the incus or anvil. A discontinuity between stapes and the incus has to be resolved.  

A small piece of bone or cartilage can be inserted from some other part of the body of the patient if the gap between the two cones mentioned above is small. But if the gap is large, then the anvil bone is removed and remodelled to give a shape of a tooth with the help of the operating microscope. After reshaping the prosthesis, it is placed between the malleus and the stapes and ossicular chain continuity is then re-established.

In some other ossicular construction, the malleus can get fixated by bony ingrowth or scar tissue to the ear’s lateral wall.  The plastic-type or silastic sheet is often placed to prevent the regrowth of a new bone against the wall.  In such a reconstruction, it may be required that the stapes and incus are separated from the natural connection to stop the transmission of drill vibration. This can damage the inner ear.

Usually, a patient is discharged within two to three hours of the surgery. Along with a mild pain reliever, some antibiotics are also administered. After 10 days, the patient is again expected to visit so that packing can be removed and graft success can be checked.

Patients are advised to keep water away from the surgical site and avoid blowing of the nose. If the patient is suffering from cold and allergies, then decongestants are prescribed. Within 5 to 6 days, the patients can resume a normal life. After 3 weeks of the surgery, the packing is removed under the operating microscope and at this point, the grafting success can be completely determined. 

Care must be taken by the patient to soak the ear canal with antibiotics to keep infection at bay. Shearing forces of excessive tension should not be felt by the graft. The surgeon will advise the patient to avoid activities that alter the tympanic pressure, including using a straw to drink or blowing of the nose. Finally, a hearing test is performed after 4 to 6 weeks of the surgery.

Frequently Asked Questions

India is a large country with a rapidly expanding system of healthcare. Like many other countries, there are public and private hospitals in India. This also includes healthcare at three levels.
  • The primary level of healthcare includes Sub Centres and Primary Health Centres.
  • At the secondary level are District Hospitals and smaller Sub-District hospitals. These are the first referral units, mostly from the primary healthcare centres.
  • Finally, the top level of health care provided is the tertiary level, which consists of Medical Colleges and Specialized Hospitals.
Since India boasts of housing a large number of people, the requirement for good healthcare and treatment in India is always there. And this also means prompt delivery of the service. Most of the treatment in India has to be offered at reasonable costs to enable people of all classes to access it. Hence, you can be assured that this country will be a great destination for your medical treatment whichever hospital in India you wish to choose.
The Joint Commission International (JCI) is a global leader in health care accreditation. JCI accreditation is considered a gold standard in worldwide health care. It provides the most skilled and experienced healthcare professionals in the medical industry, as evaluators of the rigorous international standards in healthcare quality and patient safety.
Here are some JCI certified hospitals in India:
  • Fortis Escorts Health Institutes, Delhi
  • Columbia Asia Referral Hospital, Bangalore
  • Fortis Hospital, Bangalore
  • Apollo Hospital, Chennai
  • Sri Ramachandra Medical Center, Chennai
  • Ahalia Foundation Eye Hospital, Kerala
  • Rajagiri Hospital, Kochi
  • Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai
  • Fortis Hospital, Mumbai
  • Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
  • SevenHills Hospitals, Mumbai
  • Apex Heart Institute (A Unit Of TCVS Pvt)
  • Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata.
  • Fortis Hospitals Ltd, Mulund, Mumbai
  • Narayana Multispeciality Hospital Jaipur (A Unit of Narayana Hrudayalaya Ltd.)
Hospitals in India are ever-changing to accommodate more people with up to date technology. Hospitals in India also attract patients from other countries because of their diverse range of services. Apart from allopathy and conventional treatment procedures, the government of India, along with the hospitals in India also promote alternative medical treatment options like Ayurveda, homeopathy, and yoga. All in all, you will find great options for any kind of treatment in India.
Doctors and surgeons in India have to get through examinations and continue to uphold the standard of education that is provided to them. Since doctors get exposure to various patients during their course, they are able to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases and illnesses. Therefore, one can rely on the doctors of India for their medical services.
The e-Medical Visa for India is an online travel authorization for foreign nationals who wish to seek medical treatment in the country. A medical Indian visa allows the holder to enter the country 3 times.

The e-Medical visa is a short term visa granted for medical treatment reasons. This type of visa is only granted to the patient and not to their family members.

Foreign nationals can acquire an India e-Medical visa by filling in an online application form. This simple process can be done from the comfort of the traveler’s home or office, avoiding a trip to an embassy or consulate.

Applicants must submit their basic personal information, including their full name, nationality, and date of birth. They must also provide a contact email address and phone number as well as their passport details. Finally, some security questions must be answered.

The form is quick and easy to fill out. The approved India medical visa is then delivered to the applicant’s email address within a few business days.
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India is a beautiful country spread across the vast expanse of the Asian subcontinent. Most of the metro cities have hospitals, in India, with varying levels of infrastructure. Depending on your need and medical service, you can visit your choice of city.
The capital of India is Delhi and has many renowned hospitals like the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Max Super speciality Hospital Fortis Hospitals, etc.
Other cities offering effective medical care include Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, and Hyderabad. These cities come under some of the major metro cities of India.

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