Prostate Cancer Treatment

Prostate gland is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. The cancer occurring in this gland is known as prostate cancer. 

It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer grows slowly in some cases and monitoring is recommended. But in some cases, it is very aggressive and grows quickly and requires immediate treatments.

One can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by choosing a healthy lifestyle such as eating healthy food, following a good diet, regular exercising and time to time health checkups.

Symptoms  for Prostate Cancer 

If you find any of the following signs or notice any of the signals then one must visit the doctor.

  • Burning or pain during urination.
  • Difficulty urinating, or trouble starting and stopping while urinating.
  • Frequent urges to urinate at night.
  • Loss of bladder control.
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Blood in the semen.
  • Difficulty getting or maintaining an erection

The treatment for prostate cancer is very effective, especially in the early stages. Routine checkups help doctors to detect cases of prostate cancer before they spread. Also, there are some factors that increase the risk of having prostate cancer in men such as age, obesity, and family history also play a vital role.

Factors affecting the cost of Prostate Cancer treatment

Following are the major factor that affects the Prostate Cancer treatment cost:

  • Life expectancy,
  • PSA level,
  • Gleason score, and
  • Competing medical conditions
  • Lack of medicare,
  • Late clinical stage
Treatment and Cost

25

Total Days
In Country

2 No. Travelers

5 Day in Hospital

20 Days Outside Hospital

Treatment cost starts from

USD 6500

Hospitals

About the Prostate Cancer Treatment

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, which makes fluid that forms an essential part of the semen. Prostate cancer starts when cells of the prostate glands begin to grow abnormally

Prostate cancer is one of the leading cancers in men above the age of 60. In most of the cases, it is slow growing and may even go undetected and do not cause any problem. However, in some cases, it could be aggressive and cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body (metastatic prostate cancer)

Prostate cancer is a very slow growing disease and starts with tiny alterations in the shape and size of the prostate gland cells. The prostate cancer risk increases with age and it is rarely observed before the age of 40. That is the main reason why many men die of old age, without ever knowing that they had prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Causes

There is no direct prostate cancer causes. However, there are some factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer, including the following:

  • Consumption of diet rich in red meat and high fat dairy products
  • Less consumption of vegetables and fruits
  • Obesity
  • Family history of the disease
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Sexually transmitted infections

Types of Prostate Cancer

Usually, prostate cancer means the cancer of prostate gland cells called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Almost all the prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, but there are some other types of prostate cancer as well, including the following:

  • Sarcomas
  • Small-cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas)
  • Transitional cell carcinomas

Prostate Cancer Classification

Based on how abnormal the patterns of cancer cells look, prostate cancers are classified as:

  • Low-grade PIN: In this, the pattern of prostate cells appears almost normal
  • High-grade PIN: In this, the pattern of cells looks a bit abnormal

Signs of Prostate Cancer

There are no warning signs of prostate cancer. The symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer usually appear first in the region that the cancer cells have invaded.

After cancer causes the prostate gland to swell, the following signs of prostate cancer may be experienced: 

  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting or stopping the stream of urine
  • Weak urine stream and inability to urinate
  • Pain and burning sensation during urination and ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen

In prostate cancer stages, the following symptoms may also be there:

  • Pain in spine, pelvis or ribs
  • Leg weakness
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Fecal incontinence

How is Prostate Cancer Treatment performed?

Treatment for prostate cancer can be divided into early stage and advanced stage. Your doctor will choose the best suitable treatment for you, depending on the stage and classification of prostate cancer, your age, and overall health status. Although, your feelings, expected lifespan, and your opinion will play a major role in choosing the right kind of treatment.

The most common treatment options for prostate cancer include the following:

Watchful waiting or active surveillance

No immediate treatment is carried out, but the patient is followed up at regular intervals to see the progression of the disease. This method is used in elderly patients with short life expectancy and in case of an early disease.

Surgery

The main type of prostate surgery is called radical prostatectomy. In this, cancerous tissues are removed by a surgical operation. A long cut in the abdomen is needed in this surgery, depending on the extent and stage of cancer.

However, a keyhole surgery for prostate cancer using a laparoscope or robot is also available. These treatments have good success rates but may result in certain long-term side effects such as sexual dysfunction, narrowing of the urethra, and urinary incontinence.

Radiotherapy

High-intensity beams are used in this treatment to destroy the cancer cells in the prostate. Radiotherapy can be administered via needles implanted into the prostate, under ultrasound guidance or as an external beam. Radiotherapy can be used after surgery if the resection of cancer tissue has not been completed.

There are two types of radiotherapy for prostate cancer:

Conformal radiotherapy

In this, the radiation beams are shaped so that the region where they overlap is as close to the same shape as the organ that requires treatment. It minimizes healthy tissue exposure to radiation.

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy:

In this, the beams with variable intensity are used. It is an advanced form of conformal radiotherapy. It is usually delivered with the help of a computer-controlled linear accelerator.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy involves the use of medications that suppress testosterone levels. They are used as primary treatment and in advanced cases or Stage 4 prostate cancer.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a kind of advance drug treatment in which strong medications are used to kill the cancer cells and prevent it from spreading. It is used when the prostate cancer is not controlled by hormonal treatment. Chemotherapy is selected only for treatment of Stage 4 prostate cancer and when the patient can cope with it.

Cryotherapy

This treatment uses extremely cold temperatures to freeze and destroy cancer tissues in the prostate. Cryotherapy is the best option for treating recurrent prostate cancer, especially if initial radiation therapy did not kill enough cancer cells. The surgeon inserts an ultra-thin metal probe or needle into the prostate gland, from which a freezing liquid, such as liquid nitrogen or more commonly, argon gas, is infused into the prostate gland.  

Other local ablation

Some treatments such as radiofrequency and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are used to treat early prostate cancer or when the patient is not fit for a major surgery.

Recovery from Prostate Cancer Treatment

  • Patients may suffer from some immediate and long-term side effects after the treatment. However, they may expect the doctor to guide them on how to control and manage the side effects.
  • Recovery after prostate cancer treatment takes time. You may expect yourself to go for regular follow up visits with the doctor, who will check on your progress and any signs of cancer coming back. You may have to follow a strict diet and avoid certain physical activities for a speedy recovery.
  • Additionally, a dietician will share a plan with you at the time of discharge. You should try to stick to the plan and maintain a healthy lifestyle to ensure that the recovery time after treatment is minimal.
  • If you’ve had a prostate surgery, you will have a catheter in place to drain urine for a day or two. Hospital discharge takes place after about two days after the surgery. Most of the patients are able to return to their normal routine in about two weeks’ time.

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