Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is commonly known as VP shunt. It is a medical device that relieves pressure on the brain caused by excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. VP shunt is designed to primarily treat a medical condition called hydrocephalus, which occurs when excess CSF collects in the ventricles of the brain.
The role of fluid on the brain is to protect it from injury inside the skull. CSF acts as a delivery system for nutrients that the brain needs and takes away waste products. Fluid on the brain is reabsorbed into the blood.
Hydrocephalus occurs when the normal flow of CSF is disrupted or the reabsorption of CSF in the blood is reduced. This condition can, thus, create an adverse pressure on the tissues of the brain and harm it. A brain shunt surgery can help rectify this condition by diverting the CSF away from the brain, which restores normal flow and absorption of CSF. VP shunt is surgically placed inside one of the ventricles of the brain.