People from all age groups can get affected by ear disorders and hearing impairment problems. In the United States, a survey revealed that under the age of 65, over 60 per cent of the population suffers from problems related to hearing loss. However, almost 25 per cent of people aged above 65 experience a significant loss of hearing. Thankfully, different types of ENT surgeries are available to treat problems related to the ear.
Most often, people are diagnosed with problems related to the eardrum, or tympanum, and the infection in the cells of the mastoid bone. The tympanum is the thin membranous structure present between the outer and the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit on it and this enables us to hear.
A repair surgery called tympanoplasty is required to treat a perforation or hole in the eardrum. The middle ear is sterile but due to rupture of the eardrum, an infection can also occur. It may also be required for repairing of tiny bones present behind the eardrum or ossicles in the mastoid bone. This repair is known as mastoidectomy.
Tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy are therefore conducted together in many cases. This procedure is known as tympano-mastoidectomy.
There are several reasons that may cause loss of hearing, including the following:
An ear infection that has grown very severe and left untreated for long
The injury suffered by the ear
Ear subjected to excessive levels of noise
Hearing loss as a result of age
Some of the common symptoms of a puncture in eardrum include the following:
Sharp pain in the ear that disappears abruptly
Excessive pressure, which will suddenly disappear with the rupture and pus formation in the ear
Loss of hearing
Type 1 tympanoplasty or myringoplasty is the surgery that ensures restoration of the eardrum that got perforated with drafting
Type II tympanoplasty addresses membrane perforations with erosion in the bone malleus. Grafting is done on the incus bone or in the remains of the malleus.
Type III tympanoplasty is meant for destruction of two ossicles and intact and mobile stapes bone. A graft is placed on the stapes and it provides protection for the total assembly.
Type IV tympanoplasty is useful for cases of ossicular destruction, which has all or part of the arch of stapes included. A graft is placed around the mobile stapes footplate
Type V tympanoplasty is useful when the footplate of the stapes bone is fixed.
For treating Cholesteatoma, tympanoplasty can be combined with stapedectomy and mastoidectomy and in many cases, a second operation is required to ensure the infection is totally eradicated.
The tympanoplasty surgery is performed with intravenous sedation and local anaesthesia. An incision is made into the ear canal section and from the bony ear canal, the remaining eardrum is elevated and lifted forward. Under the operating microscope, the ear structures can be seen clearly. An incision behind the ear is made if the hole is very large or far forward. It ensures that the entire outer ear is forwarded, giving better access to the perforation.
The perforated remnant part is rotated forward after the hole is exposed and now the ossicles are inspected. Scar tissue and bands can surround the bones and they are removed with a laser or micro hooks. Now the ossicular chain is pressed to check its mobility and functionality. If it is found to be mobile, then the rest of the surgery aims at repairing the defect of the drum.
From the tragus, which is the cartilaginous lobe of skin in front of the ear, or from the back of the ear,
If the bones in the ear suffer from erosion, then ossicular reconstruction is advised. At times it can be determined before surgery but in other cases, erosion is visible only when the ear is completely opened under the microscope. The reconstruction can happen at the time of the eardrum construction. Bone erosion can happen at the tip of the incus or anvil. A discontinuity between stapes and the incus has to be resolved.
A small piece of bone or cartilage can be inserted from some other part of the body of the patient if the gap between the two cones mentioned above is small. But if the gap is large, then the anvil bone is removed and remodelled to give a shape of a tooth with the help of the operating microscope. After reshaping the prosthesis, it is placed between the malleus and the stapes and ossicular chain continuity is then re-established.
In some other ossicular construction, the malleus can get fixated by bony ingrowth or scar tissue to the ear’s lateral wall. The plastic-type or
Usually, a patient is discharged within two to three hours of the surgery. Along with a mild pain reliever, some antibiotics are also administered. After 10 days, the patient is again expected to visit so that packing can be removed and graft success can be checked.
Patients are advised to keep water away from the surgical site and avoid blowing of the nose. If the patient is suffering from cold and allergies, then decongestants are prescribed. Within 5 to 6 days, the patients can resume a normal life. After 3 weeks of the surgery, the packing is removed under the operating microscope and at this point, the grafting success can be completely determined.
Care must be taken by the patient to soak the ear canal with antibiotics to keep infection at bay. Shearing forces of excessive tension should not be felt by the graft. The surgeon will advise the patient to avoid activities that alter the tympanic pressure, including using a straw to drink or blowing of the nose. Finally, a hearing test is performed after 4 to 6 weeks of the surgery.
Tympanoplasty package cost in South Africa has different inclusions and exclusions. Some of the best hospitals for Tympanoplasty offer a comprehensive package that covers the end-to-end expenses related to investigations and treatment of the patient. The comprehensive Tympanoplasty package cost includes the cost of investigations, surgery, medicines and consumables. Stay outside the package duration, post-operative complications and diagnosis of a new condition may further increase the Tympanoplasty cost in South Africa.
Upon discharge from the hospital after Tympanoplasty in South Africa, the patients are advised to stay for about 10 days for recovery. This time frame is important to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient is fit to fly back.
While South Africa is considered to be one of the best destinations for Tympanoplasty owing to the standard of Hospitals, and expertise of doctors; there are a select few destinations which provide comparable quality of healthcare for the procedure Some of the other destinations that are popular for Tympanoplasty include the following:
|United Arab Emirates||USD 5500|
|United Kingdom||USD 4000|
There are certain additional cost that the patient has to pay apart from the Tympanoplasty cost. The extra charges may start from USD 50 per person.
Some of the best cities in South Africa which offer Tympanoplasty are:
After Tympanoplasty, the patient is supposed to stay for about 2 days in the hospital for recovery and monitoring. During the recovery, the patient is carefully monitored and control tests are performed to see that everything is okay. If required, physiotherapy sessions are also planned during recovery in hospital.
The average rating for Tympanoplasty hospitals in South Africa is 2.9. Several parameters such as hospital infrastructure, pricing policy, quality of services, politeness of staff etc. contribute to the rating.
There are more than 3 hospitals that offer Tympanoplasty in South Africa. These clinics have proper infrastructure for the treatment of patients who require kidney transplant. These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in South Africa
South Africa has several top-quality hospitals, such as:
Below are some of the parameters which reflect the quality of these hospitals:
Providing world-class treatment, the hospitals comply with strict healthcare laws and also adhere to medical protocols and international standards to ensure quality care. Supported by state-of-art infrastructure, advanced medical equipment, and highly qualified doctors, the hospitals offer various facilities to improve the patient experience.
Joint Commission International (JCI) and Council for Health Service Accreditation of Southern Africa (COHSASA) are two healthcare accreditation bodies in South Africa. COHSASA develops and evaluates standards in all areas and departments of a healthcare facility in order to make sure that integrated and coordinated care is provided. The SafeCare program introduced by JCI, COHSASA, and SafeCare Foundation aims at using internationally recognized standards to provide health care delivery. Clinics and Hospitals that comply with standards are initially given two-year accreditations and this period is extended if they are consistent in providing quality care.
One of the leading medical tourism destinations, South Africa offers affordable healthcare and has superior infrastructure. Medical tourists prefer South Africa for treatment due to many other reasons like world-class facilities provided by hospitals, advanced technology, global exposure of doctors, and accredited hospitals. Liberal laws for the use of stem cells in South Africa have helped it attract a large number of medical tourists for advanced medical treatment. The hospitals in South Africa strive to take the stress out of your medical holiday by helping you with all kinds of organization and administrative tasks, as well as provide all-inclusive care and assistance on a 24/7 basis.
The doctors in South Africa strive to provide quality treatment utilizing their deep subject knowledge and hands-on experience in handling various complex cases. Most of the doctors in South Africa are trained in foreign countries like Cuba and Australia which orientate them towards quality health care. Doctors in South Africa are known for their deep expertise in dental procedures and fertility treatments. The high quality of doctors in the country is attributed to factors like their patient-centric approach, incorporation of the human touch in treatment, education at reputed colleges, and adherence to global standards.
You can get a medical visa to South Africa for 90 days. The High Commission of the country decides for how long a visa could be extended. Anyone willing to stay in the country for longer than 3 months needs to apply for a temporary residency permit. The validity of a visa begins the same day it is issued by the High Commission in South Africa. A visa application is accepted until 30 days prior to the departure date. You need to produce the below documents to apply for a medical visa:
A large number of people visit South Africa to avail procedures like anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, total knee replacement, meniscus repairs, and hip replacement. Some other procedures which have gained popularity in South Africa are cosmetic surgery and infertility treatment. Egg donation program is available in South Africa and it is even possible to select your donor, as well as gives you the option of having a surgical or non-surgical procedure, all with very low waiting times. People select South Africa to avail these procedures due to several reasons, such as world-class hospitals with superior infrastructure and highly-skilled doctors, fast recovery, and use of cutting-edge medical technology.
Top destinations for medical tourism in South Africa are Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria, and Durban. Cape Town, which attracts a wide variety of people from different ethnicity and cultures, has world-class doctors and state-of-the-art medical facilities. The reasons for the popularity of these cities are multiple food options, connectivity through airlines, and cheap accommodation. Healthcare in Johannesburg is similar to Great Britain’s health care, and the city’s public and private healthcare sectors work hand in hand with South Africa's medical schools to create internationally recognized medical specialists.
Yes, some vaccines are highly recommended or required for South Africa. WHO and the National Travel Health Network and Centre recommend the following vaccinations: hepatitis A, yellow fever, rabies and tetanus, hepatitis B, typhoid, cholera. Infants of 6 to 11 months old are at greater risk of contracting measles, so they must get MMR vaccine before travelling to South Africa. Typhoid vaccine is recommended for most travellers, especially those staying with friends or relatives or visiting smaller cities or rural areas. You need to keep yourself updated with vaccination guidelines issued by the government. Also, check with the doctor, the government authority, or hospitals in South Africa as to what vaccination should be taken.
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