Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart disorder first diagnosed or observed during the first few weeks or months of the surgery. This condition is characterized by the persistence of a normal fetal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which may allow the flow of some of the oxygenated blood back to the lungs instead of the body.
This connection is naturally present in the fetus during pregnancy. It is, in fact, present at the time of birth as well But it closes off on its own within a few days.
During pregnancy, all of the oxygen demand of the fetus is met through the placenta. Therefore, there is no need for the blood to go through the lungs for oxygenation. However, a connection is necessary to let oxygenated blood bypass the lungs of the fetus and reach the body. This connection is known as ductus arteriosus (DA).
As soon as the baby is born, the lungs take over the functioning of the connection and start purifying the blood. The problem arises when the connection does not close on its own within a few days after the birth. This condition is known as PDA.
The exact reason why DA remains open (patent) is some infants is still unknown. However, girls are twice as likely to suffer from PDA as boys. Additionally, PDA may occur in combination with other heart defects as well.
PDA, if left untreated, may lead to a number of complications. Because of the flow of oxygenated blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery and the mixing of blood, the vessels of the lungs have to handle a large amount of blood. The larger the volume of blood that enters the pulmonary artery, the greater they have to cope with the increased pressure. This may lead to long-term damage to the lungs.
PDA may cause no symptoms at all in some children. However, the following are some of the symptoms experienced by a majority of children with PDA:
PDA closure is performed under the influence of general anaesthetic (GA) using the heart catheterization procedure. During the closure, the surgeon places a closure device into the catheter.
A typical PDA closure device is made up of mesh and metal material. It is a short tube with discs of different sizes in both its ends. The device is folder before its insertion into the catheter. The device is moved out of the catheter upon reaching the right place. One of the appropriate discs opens up when the device is moved out of the catheter. It’s acts like a plug and seals off the PDA, stopping the flow of oxygenated blood to the pulmonary artery.
The catheter is usually inserted into a blood vessel in the groin region. The catheter is gently moved up to reach the site of PDA. The closure device is threaded through to reach the PDA site and is placed in the targeted position. Once the device is in place, the catheter is withdrawn and the site of catheter insertion is bandaged.
The procedure takes anywhere from one to three hours to complete. As soon as the procedure is over, the child is transferred to the recovery room and is kept there as long as the effect of the GA fades off. Most of the children are discharged on the same day as that of PDA closure procedure. However, they will be required to stay in the hospital for at least four to six hours after the surgery.
Some children, however, will be required to stay in the hospital overnight. They are transferred to the inpatient unit after the effect of the GA is over. A chest X-ray is conducted the next day in the case of all patients to check the position of the closure device. Children who are discharged on the same day of the procedure must be brought to the hospital again in the next morning for the X-ray.
The surgeon may prescribe a few antibiotics after the surgery to prevent heart infection known as infectious endocarditis. It is common for premature infants or infants with larger PDA to become tired feeding. Therefore, care must be taken to high-calorie formula or breast milk to them for normal growth and development.
PDA Closure cost in South Africa varies from one hospital to the other. There are many hospital that cover the cost of pre-surgical investigations of the patient in the treatment package. The comprehensive PDA Closure package cost includes the cost of investigations, surgery, medicines and consumables. Post-surgical complications, new findings and delayed recovery may have an impact on the total PDA Closure cost in South Africa.
Upon discharge from the hospital after PDA Closure in South Africa, the patients are advised to stay for about 18 days for recovery. This is important to ensure that the surgery was successful. During this time, control and follow-up tests take place to check for medical fitness.
There are certain expenses additional to the PDA Closure cost that the patient may have to pay for. These are the chanrges for daily meals and hotel stay outside the hospital. These charges starts from USD 50 per person.
Some of the cpopular cities in South Africa that offer PDA Closure include the following:
The average duration of stay at the hospital after PDA Closure is about 3 days for proper care and monitoring. During the recovery, the patient is carefully monitored and control tests are performed to see that everything is okay. If required, physiotherapy sessions are also planned during recovery in hospital.
The average rating for PDA Closure hospitals in South Africa is 2.9. This rating is automatically calculated on the basis of several parameters such as the infrastructure of the hospital, quality of services, nursing support and other services.
There are more than 3 hospitals that offer PDA Closure in South Africa. These clinics have propoer infrastructure as well as offer good quality of services when it comes to PDA Closure These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in South Africa
Some of the world-class multispecialty hospitals in South Africa are:
These hospitals have taken the patient experience to the next level by ensuring the below things:
South Africa is known to have strict government regulations for controlling the quality of care provided by the government and private hospitals. The hospitals are backed with state-of-art infrastructure, the latest medical equipment, and well-trained doctors and offer world-class facilities to enhance the patient experience.
Joint Commission International (JCI) and Council for Health Service Accreditation of Southern Africa (COHSASA) are two healthcare accreditation bodies in South Africa. In order to ensure coordinated and integrated care is provided by healthcare facilities, COHSASA sets and assesses standards for all sectors and departments of a healthcare system. SafeCare program has been introduced by COHSASA, JCI, and SafeCare Foundation to use internationally recognized standards to improve health care delivery. The accreditation bodies ensure that the hospitals are consistent in delivering quality care, so, initially, they grant accreditation to hospitals and clinics only for 2 years which gets extended if the quality is maintained.
South Africa is gaining global attention for medical tourism due to affordable treatment costs and world-class infrastructure. South Africa has become the epicenter of medical tourism because of several other reasons like advanced technology, several facilities provided by hospitals, doctors trained abroad, and a large pool of accredited hospitals. South Africa’s recent advancement in stem cell therapy has made it one of the most preferred countries for seeking advanced medical treatment. The hospitals in South Africa strive to take the stress out of your medical holiday by helping you with all kinds of organization and administrative tasks, as well as provide all-inclusive care and assistance on a 24/7 basis.
The highly skilled and well-qualified doctors in South Africa ensure world-class treatment through their deep expertise and subject knowledge. Having trained in foreign countries like Australia and Cuba, doctors in South Africa use their global exposure in developing deep expertise in various procedures. Doctors in South Africa are known for their deep expertise in dental procedures and fertility treatments. Some important factors which contribute to the production of good quality doctors in the country are education at premier colleges, adherence to global standards, patient-centric approach, and incorporation of the human touch in treatment.
You can get a medical visa to South Africa for 90 days. The High Commission of the country decides for how long a visa could be extended. People need to apply for a temporary residency permit in case they have to stay in the country for more than three months. A visa becomes valid the day it is issued by the High Commission and not on the date of departure. Also, an application for a visa is not be accepted more than 30 days before departure. Make sure you have the below-listed documents while applying for a medical visa:
The most sought-after procedures in South Africa are total knee replacement, meniscus repairs, hip replacement, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Cosmetic surgery and infertility treatment are some of the other popular procedures in South Africa which have a high success rate. Egg donation program is available in South Africa and it is even possible to select your donor, as well as gives you the option of having a surgical or non-surgical procedure, all with very low waiting times. People select South Africa to avail these procedures due to several reasons, such as world-class hospitals with superior infrastructure and highly-skilled doctors, fast recovery, and use of cutting-edge medical technology.
South Africa has a number of modern urban centers, such as Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria, and Durban. Cape Town a major tourist attraction that has a rich culture, world-class doctors, and modern health facilities. Besides providing quality treatment, these cities are also known for having a better public transportation system, cheap hotels, and connectivity through airlines. Johannesburg’s public and private healthcare sectors work in coordination with South Africa's medical schools to produce internationally recognized medical specialists and the city’s medical care quality matches with that of Great Britain.
Yes, you need to get vaccinated before travelling to South Africa. WHO and the National Travel Health Network and Centre have suggested the following vaccinations: Yellow fever, hepatitis A, rabies and tetanus, hepatitis B, typhoid, cholera. Infants of 6 to 11 months old are at greater risk of contracting measles, so they must get MMR vaccine before travelling to South Africa. Typhoid vaccine is recommended for most travellers, especially those staying with friends or relatives or visiting smaller cities or rural areas. You need to keep yourself updated with vaccination guidelines issued by the government. Also, check with the doctor, the government authority, or hospitals in South Africa as to what vaccination should be taken.
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