Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart disorder first diagnosed or observed during the first few weeks or months of the surgery. This condition is characterized by the persistence of a normal fetal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which may allow the flow of some of the oxygenated blood back to the lungs instead of the body.
This connection is naturally present in the fetus during pregnancy. It is, in fact, present at the time of birth as well But it closes off on its own within a few days.
During pregnancy, all of the oxygen demand of the fetus is met through the placenta. Therefore, there is no need for the blood to go through the lungs for oxygenation. However, a connection is necessary to let oxygenated blood bypass the lungs of the fetus and reach the body. This connection is known as ductus arteriosus (DA).
As soon as the baby is born, the lungs take over the functioning of the connection and start purifying the blood. The problem arises when the connection does not close on its own within a few days after the birth. This condition is known as PDA.
The exact reason why DA remains open (patent) is some infants is still unknown. However, girls are twice as likely to suffer from PDA as boys. Additionally, PDA may occur in combination with other heart defects as well.
PDA, if left untreated, may lead to a number of complications. Because of the flow of oxygenated blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery and the mixing of blood, the vessels of the lungs have to handle a large amount of blood. The larger the volume of blood that enters the pulmonary artery, the greater they have to cope with the increased pressure. This may lead to long-term damage to the lungs.
PDA may cause no symptoms at all in some children. However, the following are some of the symptoms experienced by a majority of children with PDA:
PDA closure is performed under the influence of general anaesthetic (GA) using the heart catheterization procedure. During the closure, the surgeon places a closure device into the catheter.
A typical PDA closure device is made up of mesh and metal material. It is a short tube with discs of different sizes in both its ends. The device is folder before its insertion into the catheter. The device is moved out of the catheter upon reaching the right place. One of the appropriate discs opens up when the device is moved out of the catheter. It’s acts like a plug and seals off the PDA, stopping the flow of oxygenated blood to the pulmonary artery.
The catheter is usually inserted into a blood vessel in the groin region. The catheter is gently moved up to reach the site of PDA. The closure device is threaded through to reach the PDA site and is placed in the targeted position. Once the device is in place, the catheter is withdrawn and the site of catheter insertion is bandaged.
The procedure takes anywhere from one to three hours to complete. As soon as the procedure is over, the child is transferred to the recovery room and is kept there as long as the effect of the GA fades off. Most of the children are discharged on the same day as that of PDA closure procedure. However, they will be required to stay in the hospital for at least four to six hours after the surgery.
Some children, however, will be required to stay in the hospital overnight. They are transferred to the inpatient unit after the effect of the GA is over. A chest X-ray is conducted the next day in the case of all patients to check the position of the closure device. Children who are discharged on the same day of the procedure must be brought to the hospital again in the next morning for the X-ray.
The surgeon may prescribe a few antibiotics after the surgery to prevent heart infection known as infectious endocarditis. It is common for premature infants or infants with larger PDA to become tired feeding. Therefore, care must be taken to high-calorie formula or breast milk to them for normal growth and development.
The cost of PDA Closure in Malaysia may differ from one medical facility to the other. The top hospitals for PDA Closure in Malaysia covers all the expenses related to the pre-surgery investigations of the candidate. The PDA Closure cost in Malaysia includes the cost of anesthesia, medicines, hospitalization and the surgeon's fee. Extended hospital stay, complications after the surgery or new diagnosis may affect the overall cost of PDA Closure in Malaysia.
There are many hospitals that perform PDA Closure in Malaysia. Some of the most renowned hospitals for PDA Closure in Malaysia include the following:
Upon discharge from the hospital after PDA Closure in Malaysia, the patients are advised to stay for about 18 days for recovery. This period is important to conduct all the follow-up tests to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient can go back to the home country.
There are certain expenses additional to the PDA Closure cost that the patient may have to pay for. These are the chanrges for daily meals and hotel stay outside the hospital. The extra charges may start from USD 50 per person.
Some of the best cities in Malaysia which offer PDA Closure are:
The average duration of stay at the hospital after PDA Closure is about 3 days for proper care and monitoring. The patient is subjected to several biochemistry and radiological scans to see that everything is okay and the recovery is on track. After making sure that patient is clinically stable, discharge is planned.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer PDA Closure in Malaysia. The above mentioned hospitals have the required infrastructure and a dedicated unit where patients can be treated. Such hospitals follow all legal protocols and guidelines as specified by the local medical affairs body when it comes to the treatment of international patients.
Some of the leading hospital groups in Malaysia are:
These hospitals have state-of-the-art infrastructure and are well-equipped with advanced technologies. With a two-tier healthcare system in Malaysia, the hospitals are highly advanced because of extensive support from the Malaysian government through investment in medical infrastructure. Supported by excellent facilities and well-trained staff, the hospitals in Malaysia have witnessed tremendous growth and are on par with well-developed countries.
The hospitals in Malaysia follow the healthcare standards set by Malaysian Society for Quality in Health (MSQH) and JCI. Malaysia has 12 JCI-accredited hospitals and they fully adhere to the global standards set by the organization. MSQH, Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and Malaysian Medical Association have come together to raise the standards of healthcare in Malaysia. There is a lengthy evaluation process for granting accreditation to a hospital in order to ensure international standards are met.
Malaysia is an emerging destination for medical tourism and has an effective healthcare system backed by governmental participation and public-private healthcare collaboration. Slowly overtaking many other countries as a medical tourism destination, Malaysia is offering affordable healthcare services with cutting-edge technology and skilled professionals. Malaysia is attracting a large number of medical tourists every year for cardiology and fertility treatments. Malaysia has a rich culture and several heritage spots which make it one of the most popular medical tourism destinations in the world.
The doctors in Malaysia have deep expertise in their specialty area and most of them are trained internationally before they start work in their home country. Doctors in Malaysia need to undergo a rigorous evaluation process to get a medical degree which in turn ensures that they have achieved an extreme level of professionalism and expertise in their specialty area. Doctors in Malaysia have received worldwide recognition for their high success rates in IVF and cardiac procedures. Medical tourists can apply for eVisa for traveling to Malaysia to get medical treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days under the Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP).
Malaysia offers all medical tourists the facility of applying for eVisa for traveling to the country for treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days. A person can get eVisa through online platforms and its validity expires in 3 months. A candidate would require below things to apply for an eVisa.
Maximum two persons can accompany the patient under separate Medical Attendant Visas and their visa validity will be the same as Medical Visa.
The most sought-after procedures available in Malaysia are prostate surgery, cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy. Malaysia has reached a great height in cancer treatment through gene therapy which has many benefits, such as minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs, shorter treatment time, and reduced treatment costs. With a high success rate of 55 to 60, IVF in Malaysia is much affordable and performed using the latest technology. Malaysia has highly trained orthopedic doctors who have reported high success rates in procedures like shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery, and hip replacement.
Malaysia has some top cities having world-class hospitals, such as:
With highly trained and qualified doctors and a large pool of multispecialty hospitals, Malaysia offers a great medical travel experience. A large number of medical tourists visit Kuala Lumpur and Penang every year because of several reasons like the availability of reasonably-priced hotel rooms, better transportation systems, and connectivity through airlines. These cities have become leading medical tourism destinations in Malaysia due to many other factors, such as a large pool of world-class hospitals, rich heritage, scenic value, availability of translators, and safety of tourists.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
You should take pre-exposure vaccination against rabies before traveling to Malaysia. Children are at greater risk of rabies. It is always suggested that a person traveling to Malaysia get Japanese encephalitis vaccination. If you are coming from a country with a high risk of Yellow Fever, you might need an International Certificate of Vaccination.
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