Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart disorder first diagnosed or observed during the first few weeks or months of the surgery. This condition is characterized by the persistence of a normal fetal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which may allow the flow of some of the oxygenated blood back to the lungs instead of the body.
This connection is naturally present in the fetus during pregnancy. It is, in fact, present at the time of birth as well But it closes off on its own within a few days.
During pregnancy, all of the oxygen demand of the fetus is met through the placenta. Therefore, there is no need for the blood to go through the lungs for oxygenation. However, a connection is necessary to let oxygenated blood bypass the lungs of the fetus and reach the body. This connection is known as ductus arteriosus (DA).
As soon as the baby is born, the lungs take over the functioning of the connection and start purifying the blood. The problem arises when the connection does not close on its own within a few days after the birth. This condition is known as PDA.
The exact reason why DA remains open (patent) is some infants is still unknown. However, girls are twice as likely to suffer from PDA as boys. Additionally, PDA may occur in combination with other heart defects as well.
PDA, if left untreated, may lead to a number of complications. Because of the flow of oxygenated blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery and the mixing of blood, the vessels of the lungs have to handle a large amount of blood. The larger the volume of blood that enters the pulmonary artery, the greater they have to cope with the increased pressure. This may lead to long-term damage to the lungs.
PDA may cause no symptoms at all in some children. However, the following are some of the symptoms experienced by a majority of children with PDA:
PDA closure is performed under the influence of general anaesthetic (GA) using the heart catheterization procedure. During the closure, the surgeon places a closure device into the catheter.
A typical PDA closure device is made up of mesh and metal material. It is a short tube with discs of different sizes in both its ends. The device is folder before its insertion into the catheter. The device is moved out of the catheter upon reaching the right place. One of the appropriate discs opens up when the device is moved out of the catheter. It’s acts like a plug and seals off the PDA, stopping the flow of oxygenated blood to the pulmonary artery.
The catheter is usually inserted into a blood vessel in the groin region. The catheter is gently moved up to reach the site of PDA. The closure device is threaded through to reach the PDA site and is placed in the targeted position. Once the device is in place, the catheter is withdrawn and the site of catheter insertion is bandaged.
The procedure takes anywhere from one to three hours to complete. As soon as the procedure is over, the child is transferred to the recovery room and is kept there as long as the effect of the GA fades off. Most of the children are discharged on the same day as that of PDA closure procedure. However, they will be required to stay in the hospital for at least four to six hours after the surgery.
Some children, however, will be required to stay in the hospital overnight. They are transferred to the inpatient unit after the effect of the GA is over. A chest X-ray is conducted the next day in the case of all patients to check the position of the closure device. Children who are discharged on the same day of the procedure must be brought to the hospital again in the next morning for the X-ray.
The surgeon may prescribe a few antibiotics after the surgery to prevent heart infection known as infectious endocarditis. It is common for premature infants or infants with larger PDA to become tired feeding. Therefore, care must be taken to high-calorie formula or breast milk to them for normal growth and development.
PDA Closure package cost in Switzerland has different inclusions and exclusions. The cost quoted by some of the best hospitals for PDA Closure in Switzerland generally covers the pre-surgery investigations of the patient. Typically, the package cost of PDA Closure in Switzerland includes the expenses related to the surgeon's fee, anesthesia, hospital, meals, nursing and ICU stay. There are many things that may increase the cost of PDA Closure in Switzerland, including prolonged hospital stay and complications after the procedure.
After PDA Closure in Switzerland, the patient is supposed to stay in guest house for another 18 days. This is important to ensure that the surgery was successful. During this time, control and follow-up tests take place to check for medical fitness.
Apart from the PDA Closure cost, there are a few other daily charges that the patient may have to pay. These are the charges for daily meals and accommodation outside the hospital. The per day extra expenses in Switzerland per person are about USD 50 per person.
Some of the cpopular cities in Switzerland that offer PDA Closure include the following:
After the PDA Closure takes place, the average duration of stay at the hospital is about 3 days. The doctors team review the patient's recovery during this time with the help of blood tests and imaging scans. Once they feel that everything is on track, the patient is discharged.
There are more than 2 hospitals that offer PDA Closure in Switzerland. Such clinics have the required infrastructure and a dedicated unit where patients can be treated. Apart from good services, the hospitals are known to follow all standard and legal guidelines as dictated by the local medical affairs body or organization.
There are many top-class multispecialty hospitals in Switzerland, such as:
There are several world-class hospitals in the country with state-of-art infrastructure and modern facilities. Out of a total of 500 hospitals, 12 are JCI accredited which strictly comply with international standards. The hospitals provide up to 70 percent of all out-patient services in a location. The growing number of hospitals has helped in developing the center of competence for outpatient diagnostic and therapy. The multispecialty hospitals in Switzerland provide world-class treatment with the help of high-tech equipment, the latest medical technologies, and state-of-art infrastructure.
In order to ensure that international health standards are met, the hospitals in Switzerland need to sign contracts on quality care. The healthcare accreditation and certification model is an adaptation of the International Standards Organization. The country has a very stringent process for awarding healthcare accreditation. Adherence to standard EN 45001 is compulsory for accredited healthcare facilities to ensure quality care. The health standards offer a comprehensive corrective action plan for ensuring quality culture at all levels and across all functions.
Switzerland is one of the most popular medical tourism destinations in the world because of several reasons like its highly qualified trained staff, traditional values of quality, and research-focus. Switzerland has some of the best infrastructure available, which naturally reflects in its medical tourism sector. Travelers have flocked to the country to take the advantage of healing waters. Their exceptional research institutes offer medical care of the highest quality. Switzerland is popular for its excellence in new treatments and healthcare innovations. The country is flocked with several famous research institutes that focus on developing new medical technology. High level of privacy, quality treatment, and a wide spectrum of treatment specialties are some of the other factors that lead to Switzerland’s popularity in medical tourism.
Hospitals in Switzerland generally accept health insurance but always connect with your insurance company to check whether the treatment you want to undergo is covered at the hospital in the country. The hospital will request the Guarantee of Payment from the insurance to start your treatment cashless if it is an approved insurance provider. It is important to note that there are many things that are not covered under insurance like cosmetic surgery, pregnancy and abortion, and diagnostic tests. If a treatment is not covered under a health insurance plan in Switzerland, you can initially pay for the treatment and apply for reimbursement after you are back in your country.
Some of the popular procedures available in Switzerland are:
These procedures are performed with high precision and accuracy at high-standard clinics and hospitals backed by advanced technology, and well-trained doctors. Switzerland has gained immense popularity for its excellence in cosmetic surgery and presence of medical health spas which have also made it a preferred spot for medical tourists. The increasing popularity of IVF in Switzerland is mainly attributed to highly trained fertility experts, a large number of clinics, and personalized care.
The top-ranked cities that are most preferred by medical tourists in Switzerland are Basel, Geneva, Lausanne, Lugano, Zurich, Lucerne, Bern. These cities have modern infrastructure, world-class hospitals, and highly trained doctors which contribute to providing quality treatment. Zurich and Geneva are the most popular destinations for medical tourism in Switzerland as these cities have an amazing public transportation system, a number of cheap hotels, and connectivity through airlines. A large number of hospitals, scenic value, rich culture, availability of translators, and safety of tourists also contribute to the popularity of these cities in medical tourism.
Yes, you need to get vaccinated before traveling to Switzerland. WHO and the CDC have suggested the following vaccinations:
Always have MMR and other routine vaccinations because some regions of Switzerland have periodic disease outbreaks. Your vaccination and the dosage will depend on several factors, including immunization history, traveler's age, and current medical conditions. Before traveling to Switzerland, it is suggested to get pre-exposure vaccination against rabies and yellow fever.
A candidate needs to apply for a Schengen Visa for traveling to Switzerland to seek treatment. You can stay for a maximum of 90 days in the country if you have this visa. You should apply for a National Visa for Medical Treatment if you are suffering from a serious medical condition and need to stay longer for treatment. You need to produce the below documents to apply for a medical visa:
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