As the age of an individual increase, the valves in the heart thicken and become stiffer. This may pave way for a heart valve disease. Additionally, certain risk factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and history of rheumatic fever, heart attack, and infective endocarditis (IE) increases the risk of heart valve disease. On the other hand, some babies are born with two flaps in the aortic valve instead of three. This congenital disorder, along with heart valve disease, may warrant the need for heart valve replacement.
In aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement surgery, the concerned defected or damaged valve is replaced with a mechanical or a tissue valve. This restores the normal functioning of the valve.
Valve Replacement in Turkey is conducted by a team of highly experienced and skilled surgeons. Turkey is one of the leading medical tourism destinations in the world because it houses some of the best hospitals in the world. Additionally, the country is centrally located and can be accessed from any part of the world. This is the reason why many patients from abroad prefer to visit Turkey for valve replacement, among other cardiac procedures.
There are four types of valves in the human heart – the mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary valve. The mitral and the tricuspid valve are present between the upper and the lower chambers of the heart. On the other hand, the aortic and the pulmonary valve are present in the two arteries that leave the heart.
Most often, it is the mitral and the aortic valve that undergoes certain pathologic changes due to degenerative valve diseases, rheumatic heart diseases, or infective endocarditis. This may result in problems associated with the valve opening and closure.
These dysfunctions can be treated with either valve repair or valve replacement surgery. Aortic valve replacement or mitral valve replacement is carried out when just one of the valve is diseased or damaged. However, when both the valves are diseased or damaged, a double valve replacement surgery is conducted.
The heart valves present in the heart are responsible for permitting the flow of nutrient-laden blood through the heart chambers. After allowing the ushering of blood, each valve is expected to close completely. The diseased or damaged valves are not able to open and close properly, thus allowing the mixing and backflow of blood (regurgitation).
A double valve replacement surgery mainly aims at correcting the problem of valvular heart disease and involves both aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement. The mitral valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle while the aortic valve is located in between the aorta and the left ventricle.
Some of the causes of heart valve disease include the following:
Some of the symptoms of valvular heart disease include the following:
Double valve replacement surgery is a complicated procedure as compared to single valve replacement surgery. Aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement involves the replacement of just one valve but during double valve replacement surgery, both the diseased valves are removed at the same time and replaced with a synthetic (mechanical) or a biological valve.
In the case of mechanical valves, the components used are not of organic or natural origin. They are created from a combination of polyester and carbon material that the human body can tolerate and accept. Blood-thinning medications are given to patients who get mechanical valves to prevent blood clot formation.
Bioprosthetic valves or the biologic valves are either created from animal or human tissues and can be of the following types:
The choice of a particular type of valve depends on the age, overall fitness, and the ability to metabolize anticoagulant medications. The only problem associated with a bioprosthetic valve is that it may not last a lifetime and one may have to undergo a replacement again later.
For the purpose of hemodynamic monitoring, the peripheral arterial and venous access are installed. The patient is anaesthetized in a supine position with a single lumen endotracheal tube.
In the jugular vein, two percutaneous sheath introducers are placed for central venous pressure monitoring and drug administration. Another similar one is placed in the same right jugular vein for the purpose of introducing endocavitary pacemaker leads if required. External defibrillator pads are placed on the patient’s back and on the anterior left chest.
TEE or transesophageal echocardiography probe is used for an assessment of cardiac function, percutaneous venous cannulation guidance, and valve assessment. The skin is sterilized with iodine solution and an aseptic strip is applied on areas exposed. The double valve replacement procedure is very similar to isolated aortic valve replacement or mitral valve replacement, which is conducted via a single access right anterolateral minithoracotomy.
Before systemic heparinization, the venous introducer sheath is positioned in the femoral vein to prevent any unwanted bleeding. In the third intercostal space, an incision of 6 to 8 cms is made. Minithoractomy is made and in the 3rd and 5th intercostals spaces, two auxiliary working ports are placed. The first is for video assistance and the second is for gas insufflation, cardiotomy vent, and pericardial stay sutures. The pericardium is opened upwards and downwards after removal of the pericardial fat, which is 3 to 4 cm above the phrenic nerve. The pericardium is retracted using silk sutures.
In a standard way, two aortic purse strings are placed for direct arterial cannulation after the aorta has been exposed. The operation is continued with venous cannulation under the guidance of TEE. A guidewire in moved through the venous introducer and positioned in the superior vena cava.
With the central cannulation of the ascending aorta, arterial inflow is established. The cannula has an obturator and an advanced tip to aid aortic insertion within the thorax. With cannula rings, the tip is secured and with two tourniquets the cannula is secured. They allow maximum space to work during thoracotomy access.
Carbon dioxide flow keeps running and when the heart gets arrested, the aorta is opened in an oblique way with an incision like a hockey stick, k which is further extended to the non-coronary sinus Valsalva. After this, aortotomy is made far away from the cross-clamp and from the main pulmonary artery trunk; for the closure of aortotomy, enough aortic tissue must be kept. Now the problematic valve is excised. The annulus size is measured and calibrated with a sizer and then prosthesis is implanted. The aortic prosthesis is lowered and made to remain above the final plane of implantation.
Now focus shifts to the left atrium. It gets dissected in a Sondergaard’s plane, and with the help of one single silk suspension stitch and an atrial retractor, the mitral valve is exposed. If now required the left atriotomy can be further extended behind upwardly behind the superior vena cava or along the inferior vena cava downwardly. In right minithoracotomy the visualization of the mitral valve is very good and allows valve and subvalvular repairs easily.
The procedure starts with synthetic braided sutures being placed in the mitral annulus whose diameters are measured using suitable valve sizes. For the mitral valve, reductive annuloplasty is performed. The sutures are passed and the retractor is removed and then attention is again diverted towards the aortic valve prosthesis. This is lowered into the annular plane and thereafter knotted.
For the assessment of the results of the repair, the atrial retractor is again positioned in the left atrium. To estimate the competence of the valve, a water probe is applied with an implanted open mitral ring. After successful completion, the left atrium is closed leaving behind the ventricular vent via the mitral valve in the left ventricle. Aortic cross-clamp is removed and aortotomy suture is further knotted. The aortic vent is positioned in the ascending aorta. A polypropylene purse-string suture is hand-knotted after aortic vent is removed. After confirmation by the TEE, the procedure moves to the final stage where the aortic cannula is removed and a percutaneous cannula is also withdrawn with the femoral vein temporarily placed under compression, the skin incision is closed with a single silk stitch.
After the surgery, the patient is shifted to ICU for close monitoring for several days. Blood pressure, ECG tracing, breathing rate, and oxygen levels are closely studied. You may require staying in the hospital for several days after heart valve replacement surgery. With the help of the ventilator, breathing is assisted via a tube inserted in the throat. The breathing machine will be further adjusted as the patient keeps growing stable and once the patient is able to breathe and cough on their own, the tube is removed. Along with this, the stomach tube is also removed.
In every two hours, a nurse would help the patient take deep breaths and cough. This feels sore but is vital to prevent accumulation of mucus in the lungs and prevent pneumonia. The patient is taught to hug a pillow tightly while coughing to ease out any discomfort. The patient must express discomfort felt at coughing and medications are suggested accordingly. Slowly fluid intake is initiated and you can gradually increase your daily activities such as walking around the room. After a few days, the patient is shifted to the recovery room where the rest of the recovery takes place before discharge.
Notify your doctor if you feel swelling and redness around incision area, fevers and chills, or pain in the area of the incision. You should rest and keep the surgical area as clean as possible at home.
The cost of Heart Double Valve Replacement procedure starts from USD 15000 in Turkey. Only some of the best and certified hospitals in Turkey perform Heart Double Valve Replacement for international patients.
Different hospitals have different pricing policy when it comes to the cost of Heart Double Valve Replacement in Turkey. The Heart Double Valve Replacement package cost usually includes all the expenses related to pre and post surgery expenses of the patient. The Heart Double Valve Replacement cost in Turkey includes the cost of anesthesia, medicines, hospitalization and the surgeon's fee. A prolonged hospital stay due to delayed recovery, new diagnosis and complications after surgery may increase the cost of Heart Double Valve Replacement in Turkey.
There are many hospitals across the country that offer Heart Double Valve Replacement to international patients. The top hospitals for Heart Double Valve Replacement in Turkey include the following:
While the speed of recovery may vary from patient to patient, they are still required to stay for about 21 days after discharge. This duration of stay is recommended to complete all the necessary follow-ups and control tests to ensure that the surgery was successful.
Turkey is undoubtedly one of the best countries for Heart Double Valve Replacement in the world. It offers the best medical expertise and good patient experience at an affordable cost. Some of the other destinations that are popular for Heart Double Valve Replacement include the following:
|Saudi Arabia||USD 33000|
|South Korea||USD 70000|
|United Arab Emirates||USD 45000|
There are certain additional cost that the patient has to pay apart from the Heart Double Valve Replacement cost. These charges starts from USD 50 per person.
Some of the cpopular cities in Turkey that offer Heart Double Valve Replacement include the following:
Patients who are interested in availing telemedicine consultation before they travel for Heart Double Valve Replacement in Turkey can opt for the same. There are many Heart Double Valve Replacement surgeons who offer video telemedicine consultation, including the following:
|Doctor||Cost||Schedule Your Appointment|
|Dr. Ahmet Anil Sahin||USD 160||Schedule Now|
The average duration of stay at the hospital after Heart Double Valve Replacement is about 5 days for proper care and monitoring. This phase is important to ensure that the patient is recovering well and is clinically stable. During this time, several tests are performed before the patient is deemed suitable for discharge.
The average rating for Heart Double Valve Replacement hospitals in Turkey is 3.6. This rating is automatically calculated on the basis of several parameters such as the infrastructure of the hospital, quality of services, nursing support and other services.
There are more than 40 hospitals that offer Heart Double Valve Replacement in Turkey. The above listed hospitals are approved to perform the surgery and have proper infrastructure to handle Heart Double Valve Replacement patients. Apart from good services, the hospitals are known to follow all standard and legal guidelines as dictated by the local medical affairs body or organization.
A large number of patients visit Turkey every year to receive world-class treatments at an affordable price. Offering premium medical care and comfort in a secure and safe environment, world-class hospital chains in Turkey can support you with a range of clinical needs. Hospitals strictly adhere to stringent medical protocols and international standards to ensure quality of treatment and safety of patients. Some of the top multispecialty hospitals in Turkey are:
Hospitals in Turkey are following the quality standards set by Joint Commission International (JCI), which is the major healthcare accrediting body in the country. The hospitals in Turkey ensure top-quality medical care and strictly follow the international standards set by the accreditation body. The standards act as a framework for hospitals to meet international healthcare standards and focus on the quality of care and patient safety. The standards require regular monitoring of critical events related to treatments and offer a comprehensive corrective action plan for ensuring quality culture at all levels.
Turkey is one of the top destinations for medical tourism because of several reasons like best healthcare infrastructure, world-class hospitals, advanced medical technology, and best doctors. Some other reasons for the popularity of medical tourism in Turkey are cheap medicines, low consultation fee, low-cost medical treatments, and affordable accommodations. Hospitals and healthcare centers in Turkey strive to provide Western-standardized care to their patients. Most doctors trained in America and Europe prefer to practice and take up their residency in Turkey.
Turkey has world-class doctors who are highly trained to handle all kinds of cases. The highly qualified doctors have been educated at premier educational institutions where they have rigorous training. Turkey houses some of the world’s best doctors who ensure excellent treatment results, which is mainly attributed to their deep subject knowledge and holistic treatment approach. Doctors in Turkey are highly experienced and board-certified who ensure top-quality care to their patients.
When traveling to Turkey for medical treatment, you need to carry documents like medical History, test reports, records, doctor referral notes, passport copies, residence/ driver’s license/ bank statement/ details of Health insurance. You need to pay extra heed on packing when traveling to another country for medical treatment Making a list of all the essential things you might need and checking them before leaving the house will ensure your trip gets off to a good start. Check with the concerned authority for any extra items needed because the required documents may vary as per your destination.
A large number of medical tourists visit Turkey every year to avail popular procedures, such as:
Most of these popular procedures have a success rate and are available at an affordable cost. Most hospitals in Turkey offer world-class treatments in almost every therapeutic areas. Hospitals in Turkey are equipped with the most advanced medical technology and highly experienced doctors, making the country the best destination for availing popular procedures.
Most medical tourists choose cities like Ankara, Istanbul, and Antalya which also are some of Turkey’s most famous tourist destinations. Affordable medical care with world-class facilities, impeccable patient care, and easily available medical visas make the country a foremost choice for international patients. Turkey with a number of world-class cities attracts almost one million medical tourists every year due to several reasons like world-class infrastructure, transportation facilities, availability of medical visas, and a wide range of food options. With cities full of mesmerizing sandy beaches and long history, Turkey is regarded as one of the popular tourist destinations.
Hospitals in Turkey offer all modern facilities to patients to ensure that get treatment in a comfortable environment which helps in speedy recovery. Hospitals in Turkey offer all necessary facilities, such as visa assistance, travel arrangements, airport transfers, coordination of all medical appointments, accommodations for patients and companions, international staff translators, shopping and recreational options, Internet with wi-fi, mobile sim cards, lockers, and multiple food options. Hospitals in Turkey help international patients at all stages of their treatment journey, right from queries, preparations for their travel, arrival, visit of the hospital, and follow-up care.
Healthcare organizations in Turkey accept health insurance. You need to intimate your hospital in case you have any health insurance plan that is internationally valid. You need to get in touch in touch with your insurance company in your country to confirm if the treatment you want to undergo is covered at the hospital in Turkey. The hospital will request the Guarantee of Payment from the insurance directly to commence your treatment cashless if it is an approved insurance provider.
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