Craniotomy is a preliminary surgical procedure necessarily performed to access the brain and proceed with further operations. It involves the cutting and opening of a portion of the skull in order to have access the brain. It is performed either in case of severe neurological or cerebral anomaly, or in case of traumatic as well as accidental injuries. Craniotomy is also performed to remove lodged foreign objects like iron rods, bullets, nails, etc.
The surgical removal of a bone flap or a portion of the skull to perform necessary operation on the brain is known as craniotomy. Post-operation, the bone flap is however fixed in position with the help of metal screws. Craniotomy involves carving out minute incisions or burrholes as well as significant incision known as keyholes to carry out necessary functions. The entire procedure is guided by endoscopes, stereostatic framing, as well as computer based imaging that helps the surgeons to:
Evaluation for ideal candidacy for craniotomy surgery is primarily important. The surgeons shall decide an ideal candidate if the individual:
Craniotomy is mostly performed to treat or remove brain tumors (malignant or benign). An average brain tumor surgery cost may range from $20,000 to $28,000. Apart from tumors, the surgery is performed for a number of other reasons, depending on which, craniotomy cost may range from $8000 to $20000. It may hinge on:
Craniotomy surgery is one of the most common types of brain surgery conducted to treat a brain tumor. It mainly aims at removing a lesion, tumor, or a blood clot in the brain by opening a flap above the brain to access the targeted area. This flap is removed on a temporary basis and again put in place when the surgery is done. Around 90 percent of the cases of brain tumors are diagnosed in adults aged between 55 and 65. Among children, a brain tumor is diagnosed within an age range of 3 to 12 years.
Craniotomy procedures are conducted with the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to reach the location precisely in the brain that requires treatment. A three-dimensional image for the same is achieved of the brain in conjunction with localizing frames and computers to view a tumor properly. A clear distinction is made between abnormal or tumor tissue and normal healthy tissue and to access the exact location of the abnormal tissue.
In a minimally invasive craniotomy procedure, a burr hole or a keyhole may be created to access the brain to fulfill the following purposes:
When there are complex craniotomies involved, the procedure may be referred to as a skull base surgery. In this kind of surgery, a small portion of the skull is removed from the bottom of the brain. This is the region where delicate arteries, veins, and cranial nerves exit the skull. Complicated planning is done to plan such craniotomies and understand the location of the lesions. This type of approach is usually employed for:
Primary brain tumors are much less common than secondary brain tumors. Primary ones are found to originate very close to the brain itself or in the tissues very close to it, such as the covering membranes of the brain, including the meninges, cranial nerves, pineal, or pituitary gland. It begins with normal cells, which at a later period undergoes some mutational errors in their DNA. The mutation triggers cells to grow and divide at a very high rate while healthy cells keep dying around it. This results in a mass of abnormal cells which gives rise to a tumor. Unlike primary tumors, the secondary tumors begin as cancer elsewhere and spread to the brain.
No matter what the goal of the surgery is, it is best to ensure that the incision is made to address the intracranial lesion keeping some principles in mind. A wide variety of intracranial processes can be done via a craniotomy with a different variety of incisions. Some of these variations include frontal craniotomy, pterional craniotomy, temporal craniotomy, decompression craniectomy, and suboccipital craniotomy.
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