Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection(TAPVC) which is also known as the total anomalous pulmonary venous return is an infrequent cyanotic congenital heart defect in which all of the four pulmonary veins are malpositioned and make atypical connections to the systemic venous circulation.
This is a defect in the veins which leads from the lungs to the heart. In TAPVC, the blood fails to take the normal route from the lungs to the heart and out to the body. Rather, the veins from the lungs attach to the heart in abnormal positions and this problem means that oxygenated blood enters or it starts leaking into the wrong chamber.
This defect is surgically repaired, at the time of open-heart surgery, the pulmonary veins are reconnected to the left atrium and the atrial septal defect is sealed. The surgical redirection can be performed within the first month of life. All of the four pulmonary veins are reconnected to the left atrium, and any linked heart defects such as atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and patent ductus arteriosus are surgically closed.
TAPVC surgery is performed by a Cardiologist. To become a cardiologist one may have to graduate from a university, then four more years of education at the medical school. After that, the medical license is obtained. The next three years involves training with a residency in internal medicine and then one must complete a cardiology fellowship that lasts for another three years.
Singapore offers the best hospitals like Mount Elizabeth Hospital and Thomson Medical Center, amongst the other well-equipped hospitals and highly trained cardiologists who have gone under extensive training and are highly competent like Dr. Ong Kim Kiat and Dr. Sriram Shankar.
The cost of surgery range is around 5000 USD to 8500 USD, it is comparatively less than countries like the UK and US and has laudable services and facilities.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) or Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by a malformation in all the four pulmonary veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the atrium. The malformation is such that the veins do not connect to the left atrium perfectly.
In case of TAPVC, the four pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium because of an anomalous connection. There are different TAPVC types, depending on where and how the pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium. The common TAPVC types include supracariac, cardiac, and infracardiac TAPVC.
All types of TAPVC are corrected with the help of a surgery, which is conducted during infancy itself. Additionally, all types of TAPVC almost always have an atrial septal defect (ASD), which requires a separated surgery for its closure. An ASD is a hole between the upper two chambers of the heart. As a result, some amount of oxygenated blood from the right atrium is transferred to the left atrium and out from the body.
TAPVC is detected as soon as the baby is born or even before. The following are some of the main TAPVC symptoms:
TAPVC repair is conducted as soon as the condition is diagnosed, which may happen during pregnancy or after the birth of the baby. However, the exact time as to when the repair is conducted depends on the overall health of the baby. During TAPVC repair, the neonatal cardiac surgeons connect the pulmonary veins to the back of the left atrium to restore the normal flow of blood to the heart. Additionally, they also close off any abnormal connection between the pulmonary veins. The TAPVC repair procedure does not end there. The last step in the repair mostly includes the closure of the ASD. Prior to the surgery, the body of the child is connected to an artificial heart-lung machine. The machine is disconnected as soon as the normal beating of the heart is restored after making doing all the corrective repairs.
TAPVC repair success rate is excellent with over 95 percent success rate in children who are treated electively. A child or an adult may undergo TAPVR surgery successfully, however, that does not mean that it is fully cured. They will have to attend follow-up appointments with the surgeon in the future on a regular basis. The success rate, on the other hand, is low when the procedure is conducted on an emergency basis in critically-ill infants. Even if infants do survive after undergoing emergency TAPVC repair procedure, they will be kept under a prolonged post-surgery intensive care. They are also put on a ventilator machine to assist breathing.
Even is the repair is successfully handled, the patient is required to attend follow-up session with the surgeon for the rest of your life. During the follow-up appointments, the surgeon will check the progress and keep a tap on health conditions that may develop as the child grows into an adult. Most of the children who undergo TAPVC repair and ASD closure are able to grow and develop normally. Abnormal cardiac rhythm and obstruction in the pulmonary veins are the two post-surgical complications that may rarely occur.
TAPVC package cost in Singapore has different inclusions and exclusions. There are many hospital that cover the cost of pre-surgical investigations of the patient in the treatment package. The TAPVC cost in Singapore includes the cost of anesthesia, medicines, hospitalization and the surgeon's fee. Extended hospital stay, complications after the surgery or new diagnosis may affect the overall cost of TAPVC in Singapore.
After TAPVC in Singapore, the patient is supposed to stay in guest house for another 18 days. This duration of stay is recommended to complete all the necessary follow-ups and control tests to ensure that the surgery was successful.
Apart from the TAPVC cost, the patient may have to pay for additional daily expenses such as for guest house after discharge and meals. The per day extra expenses in Singapore per person are about USD 50 per person.
There are many cities that offer TAPVC in Singapore, including the following:
After TAPVC, the patient is supposed to stay for about 3 days in the hospital for recovery and monitoring. This phase is important to ensure that the patient is recovering well and is clinically stable. During this time, several tests are performed before the patient is deemed suitable for discharge.
The average rating for TAPVC hospitals in Singapore is 2.7. This rating is automatically calculated on the basis of several parameters such as the infrastructure of the hospital, quality of services, nursing support and other services.
There are more than 6 hospitals that offer TAPVC in Singapore. The above listed clinics are approved to perform the surgery and have proper infrastructure to handle TAPVC patients. Also, these hospitals follow the necessary guidelines as required by the medical associations for the treatment of TAPVC patients.
The accredition of hospitals in Singapore is done by Joint Commission International as an international accredition agency. When it comes to healthcare quality and patient safety, the hospitals in Singapore are assessed by the Joint Commission International or JCI. Any hospital in Singapore that has been apprised by and approved on Organisation management by the Joint Commission International is the one which is really sought after by all. Hospitals in Singapore are given the accredition by Joint Commission International post stringent assessment measures.
The popular multi specialty hospital groups in Singapore are as follows
The best of the medical treatment provided by the popular multispecialty hospital groups in Singapore attracts a truly diverse international patient population them. The quality of medical professionals and the wide variety of specialties covered by the Singapore multispecialty hospitals is the reason for the success of the popular multispecialty hospitals in Singapore. The patient community loves the popular Singapore multispecialty hospitals because here you get the best of treatment in really less waiting times.
The high standards of healthcare infrastructure which is the identity of the healthcare ecosystem in Singapore is a good reason for you to choose Singapore as your treatment destination. The highest quality of comprehensive care and high precision of clinical outcomes are aimed for by healthcare professionals and healthcare providers in Singapore. The fact that Singapore healthcare system is synonymous with high degree of commitment to provide service to their patients is the reason one must opt for healthcare in Singapore. The access to absolutely excellent healthcare and ease of travel has ensured that Singapore remain on top of the map in terms of popular medical tourism destinations.
The doctors in Singapore are thorough professionals with immense practical knowledge of their area of specialisation. The emphasis of the doctors in Singapore is on precision and efficiency of treatment and these can be used to assess that the quality of doctors in Singapore is really good. The quality of doctors in Singapore will be high considering that with an influx of international medical tourist, doctors in Singapore have a vast international exposure. The high degree of skill and being educated from the best of the educational institutions in the world ensures that the doctors in Singapore are of very high quality.
We bring to you the list of documents needed for your medical travel to Singapore:
It is important that you create the right checklist outlining the documents which you need to carry prior to your journey. There are three types of documents that will cover your requirements during your medical travel to Singapore and these are your medical condition related documents, travel related documents and the ones related to your finances. Your travel documents should be aligned well with your visa requirements as someone who is traveling for medical purposes so that your treatment, stay in Singapore and your journey back to your home country is seamless.
We are outlining here the most popular procedures done in Singapore:
Armed with the best of education and training, healthcare providers in Singapore are performing complex and advanced cardiology procedures everyday. The Orthopaedic surgery procedures are synonymous with excellence as they are performed with precision and efficiency in the hospitals in Singapore. Singapore is a hub for cosmetic surgery procedures such as:
It is the hospitals in Singapore that are giving a world class treatment to their patients and their loved ones accompanying them by providing several additional facilities. Hospitals in Singapore are constantly putting efforts in making your travel and transfer seamless by providing you facilities such as:
It is pertinent to note that hospitals in Singapore are always seeking to make your medical travel to Singapore easy by enabling private payment gateways and the wide availability of private insurance. Other facilities provided by hospitals in Singapore are health screening programmes, dietitians and presence of pharmacies in the hospitals.
When you are applying for a medical visa for Singapore visit do check the visa requirements for your country as Singapore has relaxed visa norms vis a vis many countries. Please find below the required documents for a medical visa to Singapore:
It is good to note that it takes a minimum of five working days for the processing of your medical visa (exceptions maybe additional time during peak periods and due to incomplete visa applications). Do check the required visa fee from your country for Singapore medical visa. Your financials must be in order for you to get a Singapore medical visa and you must submit your original bank statement to ensure this.
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