Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) or Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by a malformation in all the four pulmonary veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the atrium. The malformation is such that the veins do not connect to the left atrium perfectly.
In case of TAPVC, the four pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium because of an anomalous connection. There are different TAPVC types, depending on where and how the pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium. The common TAPVC types include supracariac, cardiac, and infracardiac TAPVC.
All types of TAPVC are corrected with the help of a surgery, which is conducted during infancy itself. Additionally, all types of TAPVC almost always have an atrial septal defect (ASD), which requires a separated surgery for its closure. An ASD is a hole between the upper two chambers of the heart. As a result, some amount of oxygenated blood from the right atrium is transferred to the left atrium and out from the body.
TAPVC is detected as soon as the baby is born or even before. The following are some of the main TAPVC symptoms:
TAPVC repair is conducted as soon as the condition is diagnosed, which may happen during pregnancy or after the birth of the baby. However, the exact time as to when the repair is conducted depends on the overall health of the baby. During TAPVC repair, the neonatal cardiac surgeons connect the pulmonary veins to the back of the left atrium to restore the normal flow of blood to the heart. Additionally, they also close off any abnormal connection between the pulmonary veins. The TAPVC repair procedure does not end there. The last step in the repair mostly includes the closure of the ASD. Prior to the surgery, the body of the child is connected to an artificial heart-lung machine. The machine is disconnected as soon as the normal beating of the heart is restored after making doing all the corrective repairs.
TAPVC repair success rate is excellent with over 95 percent success rate in children who are treated electively. A child or an adult may undergo TAPVR surgery successfully, however, that does not mean that it is fully cured. They will have to attend follow-up appointments with the surgeon in the future on a regular basis. The success rate, on the other hand, is low when the procedure is conducted on an emergency basis in critically-ill infants. Even if infants do survive after undergoing emergency TAPVC repair procedure, they will be kept under a prolonged post-surgery intensive care. They are also put on a ventilator machine to assist breathing.
Even is the repair is successfully handled, the patient is required to attend follow-up session with the surgeon for the rest of your life. During the follow-up appointments, the surgeon will check the progress and keep a tap on health conditions that may develop as the child grows into an adult. Most of the children who undergo TAPVC repair and ASD closure are able to grow and develop normally. Abnormal cardiac rhythm and obstruction in the pulmonary veins are the two post-surgical complications that may rarely occur.
The cost of TAPVC in Malaysia may differ from one medical facility to the other. The TAPVC package cost usually includes all the expenses related to pre and post surgery expenses of the patient. The comprehensive TAPVC package cost includes the cost of investigations, surgery, medicines and consumables. Post-surgical complications, new findings and delayed recovery may have an impact on the total TAPVC cost in Malaysia.
There are many hospitals that perform TAPVC in Malaysia. The top hospitals for TAPVC in Malaysia include the following:
While the speed of recovery may vary from patient to patient, they are still required to stay for about 18 days after discharge. This period is important to conduct all the follow-up tests to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient can go back to the home country.
While Malaysia is considered to be one of the best destinations for TAPVC owing to the standard of Hospitals, and expertise of doctors; there are a select few destinations which provide comparable quality of healthcare for the procedure However, there are other countries as mentioned below that are popular for TAPVC as well:
There are certain additional cost that the patient has to pay apart from the TAPVC cost. The extra charges may start from USD 50 per person.
The following are some of the best cities for TAPVC in Malaysia:
After the TAPVC takes place, the average duration of stay at the hospital is about 3 days. This phase is important to ensure that the patient is recovering well and is clinically stable. During this time, several tests are performed before the patient is deemed suitable for discharge.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer TAPVC in Malaysia. The above mentioned hospitals have the required infrastructure and a dedicated unit where patients can be treated. Apart from good services, the hospitals are known to follow all standard and legal guidelines as dictated by the local medical affairs body or organization.
Some of the leading hospital groups in Malaysia are:
These hospitals are more focused on providing quality treatment and are supported by the latest medical technologies and excellent infrastructure. The Malaysian government extends large support to hospitals through boosting investments in medical infrastructure. Malaysian Hospitals, with well-trained staff and excellent facilities, are on par with well-developed countries and have shown significant improvement in the last ten years.
The healthcare systems in Malaysia receive accreditation from Malaysian Society for Quality in Health (MSQH) and JCI. Malaysia has 12 JCI-accredited hospitals and they fully adhere to the global standards set by the organization. MSQH has recently partnered with Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and the Malaysian Medical Association, to work together on raising the standards of healthcare in Malaysia. The process of receiving healthcare accreditation in Malaysia is very stringent and the hospitals are strictly evaluated on quality parameters.
One of the leading medical tourism destinations in the world, Malaysia boasts of having a strong healthcare system supported by public-private healthcare collaboration and governmental participation. Malaysia has received worldwide recognition for its excellent healthcare system mainly attributed to advanced technology, modern infrastructure, and highly trained medical professionals. Malaysia has achieved high success rates in fertility treatments and cardiology with world-class hospitals. Besides providing world-class treatment, Malaysia also offers an excellent travel experience through its food, cultural diversity, and heritage spots.
The high-quality doctors in Malaysia have global exposure which makes them efficient in treating various conditions. Producing one of the finest doctors in the world, Malaysia has a strict evaluation system in place to ensure that the country has quality doctors with a high level of professionalism. Although the doctors in Malaysia have expertise in performing a wide range of procedures, they have delivered excellent results in IVF and cardiology. Malaysia offers all medical tourists the facility of applying for eVisa for traveling to the country for treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days.
Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) allows all medical tourists to apply for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and residing there for a period of 30 days. eVISA can be availed through online platforms and is valid for 3 months. A candidate would require below things to apply for an eVisa.
Two attendants can accompany the patient to Malaysia under Medical Attendant Visa.
The most sought-after procedures available in Malaysia are prostate surgery, cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy. Cancer treatment through gene therapy is becoming popular in Malaysia as this novel technique guarantees reduced treatment costs, shorter treatment time, minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs. Malaysia uses modern technology and follows best practices to perform Assisted Reproductive Technique procedures like IVF, which has a success rate of 55 to 60. With recent advancements in orthopedic technologies, Malaysia offers some effective procedures such as hip replacement, shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery.
The cities in Malaysia that attract a large number of medical tourists are:
These cities have world-class hospitals with superior infrastructure and highly trained hospitals, all these contributing to an amazing patient experience. Both Penang and Kuala Lumpur are the centres of attraction for medical tourists as they are serviced by airlines from around the world; have a number of reasonably-priced hotel rooms and an excellent public transportation system. These cities are most preferred by medical tourists because of many other reasons like a large number of hospitals, rich culture, scenic value, availability of translators, and safety of tourists.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
Pre-exposure vaccination against rabies is recommended before travel to Malaysia and children are at greater risk of rabies. Make sure you get vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis before you travel to Malaysia because this is a common disease there. If you are coming from a country with a high risk of Yellow Fever, you might need an International Certificate of Vaccination.
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