Cervical cancer is an abnormal growth of cancer cells that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the narrow part of the lower uterus. It is the entrance of the uterus, often referred to as the neck of the womb. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in women around the world. It is the fourth leading cause of death caused by cancer in women. However, the important thing to note is that cervical cancer is also one of the most preventable types of cancer and early diagnosis of the disease can improve the mortality rate amongst patients.
A dramatic reduction in cervical cancer occurrence is primarily due to the widespread use of advanced screening tests such as pap tests to detect cervical abnormalities and allow for early treatment.
Under normal circumstances, the ectocervix is covered with flat, thin cells called squamous cells and the endocervix is made up of another kind of cells called columnar cells. The area where these cells meet is called the transformation (T) zone. The T zone is the most likely location for cervical cancer cells to develop.
A majority of cervical cancer cases occur because of a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. It can transfer through
There are many types of the HPV virus and not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of the HPV may cause genital warts. Some other cervical cancer risk factors include smoking, weak immune system, oral contraceptives, and multiple pregnancies.
More than 90 percent of the cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. The second most common type of cervical cancer is adenocarcinoma. Adenosquamous carcinomas or mixed carcinomas are some of the rare types of cervical cancer.
Usually, there are no early signs of cervical cancer, but several cervical cancer symptoms may appear as the tumor grows in size. Some of the common cervical cancer symptoms include the following:
Cervical cancer that is confined to the cervix has good success rate if treated on time. The farther the cancer cells have metastasized, the lower the success rate tends to be. The selection of a cervical cancer treatment option depends on the stage, size, and depth of invasion of cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health status.
The most common cervical cancer treatment options include:
This is more of a preventive treatment option. Getting sexually-active women enrolled in an HPV vaccination program can substantially reduce cervical cancer rates.
Cervical cancer surgery can be used to remove cancer cells from their place of origin and the surrounding tissues. The common types of surgery used for cervical cancer treatment include:
There are different ways to conduct a hysterectomy, including abdominal hysterectomy (abdomen incision), vaginal hysterectomy (the uterus is removed through the vagina), laparoscopic hysterectomy (keyhole surgery by laparoscope) and robotic hysterectomy (laparoscopy attached to robotic arms).
In this type of cervical cancer surgery, the surgeon removes the uterus along with the tissues next to the uterus. The upper part of the vagina next to the cervix can also be removed. However, the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes are not removed unless there is any other medical reason to do so.
In this kind of surgery, the surgeon removes the cervix and the upper part of the vagina, but not the body of the uterus. This surgery allows women to be treated without losing their ability to have children.
This treatment for cervical cancer makes use of high energy X-rays or radioactive particles to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be given as external beam or as internal radiation (brachytherapy) to the pelvis.
Radiation therapy for cervical cancer can be used as a part of the main treatment or it can be used after surgery for cervical cancer removal. Patients are sometimes given radiation therapy with chemotherapy to further reduce the risk of cancer relapse.
This treatment makes use of anti-cancer medicines to kill cancer cells. The cytotoxic medicines used in chemotherapy enter the bloodstream and reach all areas of the body. This makes chemotherapy treatment useful for preventing cancer cells from dividing and growing in most parts of the body. Chemotherapy is often given in cycles, with each treatment period followed by a recovery time.
Cytotoxic drugs are effective in killing cancer cells but, it also damages some normal cells, which can lead to certain side effects. These side effects depend on the type and dosage of the drugs.
Recovery after cervical cancer treatment may take a long time, but you will be relieved that cancer has been removed. You will be required to make regular follow-up visits to the doctor for the first few years. The doctors will check your recovery and any signs of cancer coming back with the help of PAP smear and certain blood tests.
You will be advised to undergo a physical exam every three to six months initially and every six months for a few years. Since you no longer have the cervix, the cells samples for PAP smear test will be taken from the upper part of the vagina.
You must take the following steps to minimize your risk of cervical cancer recurrence:
On an average, Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia costs about $8500. Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia is conducted across several MSQH certified hospitals.
The cost of Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia may differ from one medical facility to the other. Some of the best hospitals for Cervical Cancer Treatment offer a comprehensive package that covers the end-to-end expenses related to investigations and treatment of the patient. The treatment cost usually includes the expenses related to hospitalization, surgery, nursing, medicines, and anesthesia. Stay outside the package duration, post-operative complications and diagnosis of a new condition may further increase the Cervical Cancer Treatment cost in Malaysia.
Many hospitals in Malaysia perform Cervical Cancer Treatment. The top hospitals for Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia include the following:
Upon discharge from the hospital after Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia, the patients are advised to stay for about 30 days for recovery. During this time, the patient undergoes medical tests and consultations. this is to ensure that the treatment was successful and the patient us safe to return.
Malaysia is considered to be one of the best places for Cervical Cancer Treatment in the world. This is because of the availability of some of the best doctors, advanced medical technology and good hospital infrastructure. However, there are other countries as mentioned below that are popular for Cervical Cancer Treatment as well:
|South Africa||USD 3700|
|United Kingdom||USD 10000|
Apart from the Cervical Cancer Treatment cost, there are a few other daily charges that the patient may have to pay. These are the charges for daily meals and accommodation outside the hospital. These charges starts from USD 50 per person.
The following are some of the best cities for Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia:
After Cervical Cancer Treatment, the patient is supposed to stay for about 5 days in the hospital for recovery and monitoring. During the recovery, the patient is carefully monitored and control tests are performed to see that everything is okay. If required, physiotherapy sessions are also planned during recovery in hospital.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer Cervical Cancer Treatment in Malaysia. Such clinics have the required infrastructure and a dedicated unit where patients can be treated. Such hospitals follow all legal protocols and guidelines as specified by the local medical affairs body when it comes to the treatment of international patients.
Some of the leading hospital groups in Malaysia are:
These hospitals are supported by the latest medical technologies and superior infrastructure, ensuring world-class treatment. With a two-tier healthcare system in Malaysia, the hospitals are highly advanced because of extensive support from the Malaysian government through investment in medical infrastructure. The hospitals in Malaysia have shown tremendous improvements in the last ten years and are now on par with well-developed countries, having both well-trained staff and excellent hospital facilities.
What healthcare accreditation standards are followed in Malaysia? Around 12 hospitals in Malaysia have received JCI certification and all of them follow the global standards. MSQH has recently partnered with Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and the Malaysian Medical Association, to work together on raising the standards of healthcare in Malaysia. The process of receiving healthcare accreditation in Malaysia is very stringent and the hospitals are strictly evaluated on quality parameters.
An emerging global giant in medical tourism, Malaysia has one of the most strong healthcare systems in the world supported by solid governmental participation in the market and public-private healthcare collaboration. Slowly overtaking many other countries as a medical tourism destination, Malaysia is offering affordable healthcare services with cutting-edge technology and skilled professionals. With world-class hospitals across Asia and beyond, Malaysia has reported high success rates in cardiology and fertility treatments. Malaysia is also popular among medical tourists because of its food, cultural diversity, and heritage spots.
The doctors in Malaysia have deep expertise in their specialty area and most of them are trained internationally before they start work in their home country. Doctors in Malaysia need to undergo a rigorous evaluation process to get a medical degree which in turn ensures that they have achieved an extreme level of professionalism and expertise in their specialty area. Doctors in Malaysia have received worldwide recognition for their high success rates in IVF and cardiac procedures. Malaysia offers all medical tourists the facility of applying for eVisa for traveling to the country for treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days.
Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) allows all medical tourists to apply for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and residing there for a period of 30 days. eVISA can be availed through online platforms and is valid for 3 months. You need to provide the following things to obtain an eVisa:
Maximum two persons can accompany the patient under separate Medical Attendant Visas and their visa validity will be the same as Medical Visa.
Some of the most popular treatments available in Malaysia include cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy, prostate surgery. Cancer treatment through gene therapy is becoming popular in Malaysia as this novel technique guarantees reduced treatment costs, shorter treatment time, minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs. Fertility hospitals and clinics have reported high success rates in IFV due to a number of reasons like the use of the latest technology, trained experts, adherence to strict protocols and safety standards, and a holistic treatment approach. Malaysia has also reported great achievements in orthopedic surgeries and some of the popular procedures include hip replacement, shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery.
Malaysia has some top cities having world-class hospitals, such as:
With highly trained and qualified doctors and a large pool of multispecialty hospitals, Malaysia offers a great medical travel experience. A large number of medical tourists visit Kuala Lumpur and Penang every year because of several reasons like the availability of reasonably-priced hotel rooms, better transportation systems, and connectivity through airlines. A large number of hospitals, scenic value, rich culture, availability of translators, and safety of tourists also contribute to the popularity of these cities in medical tourism.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
Before a trip to Malaysia, you can get pre-exposure vaccination against rabies. Children are more vulnerable. Japanese encephalitis is common in Malaysia and can be prevented through vaccination. If you are coming from a country with a high risk of Yellow Fever, you might need an International Certificate of Vaccination.
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