Dr. Prateek Varshney is a renowned Surgical Oncologist. He has experience of more than 10 years in surgical Oncology. He is currently practicing as a consultant at Metro Mass Hospital and Cancer Institute. He was also previously associated as a consultant with Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and as a professor at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute. Dr. Varshney completed his MBBS from Aligarh Muslim University in 2005 and later in the year 2010, he completed his MS in General Surgery from the same University. He passed his M. Ch. in Surgical Oncology from BJ Medical College in 2016.
Dr. Prateek Varshney has been extensively trained in the surgical management of various cancer and performed more than 8000 cancer surgeries. The area of expertise includes Head and Neck Tumor, Soft tissue cancer, Colorectal Malignancies, Lung cancer treatment, Hepatobiliary cancer treatment, Urological Malignancies, Esophageal cancer, and Gastric Cancer. Dr. Varshney is an active member of the Delhi Medical Council. He has been also attended many National workshops and conferences.
Brain cancer can interfere with normal brain functions such as speech, movement, thoughts, feelings, memory, vision, and hearing. It is a disease of the brain in which abnormal, cancerous cells grow in the brain tissues. Typically, brain cancer is a developed form of a brain tumour. Primary brain cancer or a brain tumour develops from cells within the brain.
However, all brain tumours are not brain cancer. But one thing to note is that even benign tumour can cause serious problems by increasing intracranial pressure or obstruct vascular structures or cerebrospinal fluid flow in the brain.
Different types of cells in the brain such as gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and primitive neuroectodermal (medulloblastomas) can become cancerous. Gliomas have several subtypes, which include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and choroid plexus papillomas.
There are two types of brain cancer, including:
Metastatic cancer in the brain is more common than primary brain cancer. They are usually named after the tissue or organ where cancer first develops. Metastatic lung or breast cancer in the brain is the most commonly found brain cancers.
The exact brain cancer cause is still unknown. However, its occurrence has been linked to several risk factors, including the following:
Some types of brain cancers such as meningeal and pituitary gland may produce few or no symptoms. Some of the brain cancer symptoms typically experienced by patients include:
The recent advances made in breast cancer treatment have revolutionized the way how women from this rare disorder are diagnosed and suggested a personalized treatment plan. These advances have made it easier for the doctors to arrive at a treatment plan, which is most suitable for the patient as per their individual characteristics and needs.
Different breast cancer treatment options help destruct complex mixture of cancer cells, which are otherwise difficult to treat using conventional breast cancer treatment. The treatment is started by the doctors handling the case as soon as the breast cancer diagnosis is confirmed.
Before the article delves into the different breast cancer treatment options, lets first take a look at how breast cancer develops and what are its symptoms and diagnosis methods.
Breast cancer primarily affects females aged above 40. However, that does not mean that it does not affect women aged below 40. Breast cancer can also affect males, although rarely.
Breast cancer starts in the cells of either one or both the breasts. It accounts for more than 16 percent of female cancer and contributes to 18.2 percent of all deaths that take place around the world because of cancer.
In the US alone, breast cancer affects more than 232,000 females and 2,200 males each year. It leads to death of more than 39,000 breast cancer patients in a year.
The symptoms of breast cancer can be easily identified at home through breast self-examination. You should consult your physician on how to conduct this exam at home.
The most common breast cancer symptoms include:
In case of more aggressive breast cancer called inflammatory breast cancer, severe redness and itching may be present.
The patients are advised to contact their physician as soon as they notice any of the symptoms of breast cancer. The physician is the best person to diagnose whether it is normal or inflammatory best cancer, and accordingly, suggest treatment for breast cancer.
The exact reason that causes breast cancer is unclear, despite the fact that every eighth woman suffers from it. However, there are several factors that have been associated with the development of breast cancer. Some of the breast cancer risk factors include:
The risk of breast cancer naturally increases as women age. The risk is also higher in women who have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, possess BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or who have had their periods before the age of 12.
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. It can metastasize and spread to other body parts. Colorectal cancer is dangerous and can be life-threatening. But death rate from colorectal cancer has dropped in the recent years, thanks to advance screening techniques and better colorectal treatment options.
Colorectal cancer is also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Colorectal cancer begins as an abnormal growth of cells in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. This abnormal growth is called a polyp.
Some types of polyps can change into cancer over the course of several years. But it does not mean that all polyps have the tendency to become cancerous. The chance of changing a polyp into colorectal cancer depends on the type of polyp that grows.
Colorectal cancer can affect men and women equally. However, studies have proven that men might develop it at a younger age.
There is no definite cause of colorectal cancer, but old age and certain lifestyle factors can increase colorectal cancer risk. Some of these colorectal cancer risk factors include the following:
A majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinoma. If you have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, there are 95 percent chances that it is an adenocarcinoma. But there are some other types of colorectal cancer such as carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal, lymphomas, and sarcomas.
There are no early signs of colorectal cancer, but once it grows, the patients may experience the following colon cancer symptoms:
Lung cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells that start off in the lungs. Usually, lung cancer starts in the cells that line the air passages. Instead of developing into healthy lung tissue, the cells divide rapidly and form tumours.
Lung cancer can grow and spread beyond the lung to reach other parts of the body through metastasis. Lung cancers can begin in any part of the lung, but 90 percent of lung cancers begin in the epithelial cells, which are the cells lining the larger and smaller airways also known as bronchi and bronchioles.
This is the reason why lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, among both men and women. It is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.
Long-term smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. After smoking, genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke or other forms of air pollution can also increase the risk of lung cancer.
There are two major types of lung cancers, based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope:
It is necessary to determine the stage of lung cancer by finding out how far cancer has spread, before initiating treatment of lung cancer.
The following are the four lung cancer stages of NSCLC:
After the determination of stage, treatment of lung cancer starts with choosing the best suitable option for the patient. However, there is usually no single treatment for lung cancer. So the patient often receives a combination of therapies and palliative care.
Lung cancer symptoms may vary, depending upon where and how widespread the tumour is. A person with lung cancer may have following lung cancer symptoms:
Mastectomy refers to the partial or complete surgical removal of one or both the breasts. This surgery is most often indicated for breast cancer.
A lump in the breast or armpits is one of the earliest signs of breast cancer. It can cause a change in the shape, size, or color of the breast or nipple. Nipple tenderness, inward folding of the nipple, discharge from the nipple, and orange peel appearance of the skin of the breast are the other signs of breast cancer. Patients who observe any of the above-mentioned signs must see their physician immediately.
Your physician may recommend you to undergo a partial or full mastectomy in the following conditions:
Additionally, if you have a family history of breast cancer or deleterious mutation of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes, you are advised preventive mastectomy.
Oral cancer, commonly referred to as mouth cancer or throat cancer, is an uncontrollable growth of cells in the oral cavity. It refers to cancer that develops in any of the parts that make up the mouth. It can include cancer of the lips, tongue, cheeks, the floor of the mouth, pharynx (throat), hard and soft palate and either of the sinuses. Mouth and oropharyngeal cancer can be life-threatening, but it could be prevented if the cancer is diagnosed early enough.
Oral cancer is a result of a mutation in the DNA of the cells in the mouth. There are certain identified risk factors for mouth cancer that predisposes a person to oral cancer.
There are some typical signs of mouth cancer that a majority of patients experience. Make sure to visit your doctor or dentist in case you experience any of the following signs of mouth cancer:
The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, which makes fluid that forms an essential part of the semen. Prostate cancer starts when cells of the prostate glands begin to grow abnormally
Prostate cancer is one of the leading cancers in men above the age of 60. In most of the cases, it is slow growing and may even go undetected and do not cause any problem. However, in some cases, it could be aggressive and cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body (metastatic prostate cancer)
Prostate cancer is a very slow growing disease and starts with tiny alterations in the shape and size of the prostate gland cells. The prostate cancer risk increases with age and it is rarely observed before the age of 40. That is the main reason why many men die of old age, without ever knowing that they had prostate cancer.
There is no direct prostate cancer causes. However, there are some factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer, including the following:
Usually, prostate cancer means the cancer of prostate gland cells called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Almost all the prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, but there are some other types of prostate cancer as well, including the following:
Based on how abnormal the patterns of cancer cells look, prostate cancers are classified as:
There are no warning signs of prostate cancer. The symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer usually appear first in the region that the cancer cells have invaded.
After cancer causes the prostate gland to swell, the following signs of prostate cancer may be experienced:
In prostate cancer stages, the following symptoms may also be there:
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. This disease is a result of the growth of cancerous and malignant cells in the inner lining of the stomach.
Stomach cancer does not grow overnight as this disease usually grows slowly over many years. Some pre-cancerous changes take place before true cancer actually develops. But these early changes rarely result in any symptoms and therefore, often go undetected in the early stage when it is most easy to treat it.
Gastric cancer can grow through the wall of the stomach and invade nearby organs. It can easily spread to the lymph vessels and lymph nodes. In an advanced stage, it can travel through the bloodstream and spread or metastasize to organs such as the liver, lungs, and bones. Usually, people diagnosed with stomach cancer have either experienced metastasis already or eventually develop it.
Stomach cancer should not be confused with other cancers in the abdomen or esophageal cancer. Some other cancer can also occur in the abdomen, including cancer of the large and small intestine, liver or pancreas. These cancers may have different symptoms, outlook, and options for treatment.
Some other types of stomach cancers include squamous and small cell carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma. These cancers are very rare.
There is no single, definite cause behind stomach cancer. However, several stomach cancer risk factors have been identified that could potentially lead to the formation to a tumor in the stomach. Some of these stomach cancer causes or risk factors include:
There can be several early stomach cancer symptoms. However, the signs of stomach cancer could be present because of some other underlying condition as well. Unfortunately, this is the main reason why it is difficult to make stomach cancer diagnosis at an early stage.
Some of the early stomach cancer symptoms may include:
But just experiencing indigestion or heartburn after a meal does not really mean that you have cancer. Although, if you experience these symptoms a lot, talk to your doctor, who can decide whether to conduct further tests or not.
As advanced gastric cancer grow, you may experience more serious signs of stomach cancer, including the following:
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