Cervical cancer is an abnormal growth of cancer cells that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the narrow part of the lower uterus. It is the entrance of the uterus, often referred to as the neck of the womb. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in women around the world. It is the fourth leading cause of death caused by cancer in women. However, the important thing to note is that cervical cancer is also one of the most preventable types of cancer and early diagnosis of the disease can improve the mortality rate amongst patients.
A dramatic reduction in cervical cancer occurrence is primarily due to the widespread use of advanced screening tests such as pap tests to detect cervical abnormalities and allow for early treatment.
Under normal circumstances, the ectocervix is covered with flat, thin cells called squamous cells and the endocervix is made up of another kind of cells called columnar cells. The area where these cells meet is called the transformation (T) zone. The T zone is the most likely location for cervical cancer cells to develop.
A majority of cervical cancer cases occur because of a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. It can transfer through
There are many types of the HPV virus and not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of the HPV may cause genital warts. Some other cervical cancer risk factors include smoking, weak immune system, oral contraceptives, and multiple pregnancies.
More than 90 percent of the cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. The second most common type of cervical cancer is adenocarcinoma. Adenosquamous carcinomas or mixed carcinomas are some of the rare types of cervical cancer.
Usually, there are no early signs of cervical cancer, but several cervical cancer symptoms may appear as the tumor grows in size. Some of the common cervical cancer symptoms include the following:
Cervical cancer that is confined to the cervix has good success rate if treated on time. The farther the cancer cells have metastasized, the lower the success rate tends to be. The selection of a cervical cancer treatment option depends on the stage, size, and depth of invasion of cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health status.
The most common cervical cancer treatment options include:
This is more of a preventive treatment option. Getting sexually-active women enrolled in an HPV vaccination program can substantially reduce cervical cancer rates.
Cervical cancer surgery can be used to remove cancer cells from their place of origin and the surrounding tissues. The common types of surgery used for cervical cancer treatment include:
There are different ways to conduct a hysterectomy, including abdominal hysterectomy (abdomen incision), vaginal hysterectomy (the uterus is removed through the vagina), laparoscopic hysterectomy (keyhole surgery by laparoscope) and robotic hysterectomy (laparoscopy attached to robotic arms).
In this type of cervical cancer surgery, the surgeon removes the uterus along with the tissues next to the uterus. The upper part of the vagina next to the cervix can also be removed. However, the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes are not removed unless there is any other medical reason to do so.
In this kind of surgery, the surgeon removes the cervix and the upper part of the vagina, but not the body of the uterus. This surgery allows women to be treated without losing their ability to have children.
This treatment for cervical cancer makes use of high energy X-rays or radioactive particles to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be given as external beam or as internal radiation (brachytherapy) to the pelvis.
Radiation therapy for cervical cancer can be used as a part of the main treatment or it can be used after surgery for cervical cancer removal. Patients are sometimes given radiation therapy with chemotherapy to further reduce the risk of cancer relapse.
This treatment makes use of anti-cancer medicines to kill cancer cells. The cytotoxic medicines used in chemotherapy enter the bloodstream and reach all areas of the body. This makes chemotherapy treatment useful for preventing cancer cells from dividing and growing in most parts of the body. Chemotherapy is often given in cycles, with each treatment period followed by a recovery time.
Cytotoxic drugs are effective in killing cancer cells but, it also damages some normal cells, which can lead to certain side effects. These side effects depend on the type and dosage of the drugs.
Recovery after cervical cancer treatment may take a long time, but you will be relieved that cancer has been removed. You will be required to make regular follow-up visits to the doctor for the first few years. The doctors will check your recovery and any signs of cancer coming back with the help of PAP smear and certain blood tests.
You will be advised to undergo a physical exam every three to six months initially and every six months for a few years. Since you no longer have the cervix, the cells samples for PAP smear test will be taken from the upper part of the vagina.
You must take the following steps to minimize your risk of cervical cancer recurrence:
The average cost of Cervical Cancer Treatment in the United Kingdom starts from USD 10000 Many multispeciality hospitals in the United Kingdom that are QHA Trent Accreditation, ISQUA, UKAF certified are approved and most sought after for treating international patients with Cervical Cancer Treatment
Different hospitals have different pricing policy when it comes to the cost of Cervical Cancer Treatment in the United Kingdom. Some of the best hospitals for Cervical Cancer Treatment offer a comprehensive package that covers the end-to-end expenses related to investigations and treatment of the patient. The comprehensive Cervical Cancer Treatment package cost includes the cost of investigations, surgery, medicines and consumables. Post-surgical complications, new findings and delayed recovery may have an impact on the total Cervical Cancer Treatment cost in the United Kingdom.
After discharge from the hospital, the patient has to stay for another 30 days in the country for complete recovery. During this time, the patient undergoes medical tests and consultations. this is to ensure that the treatment was successful and the patient us safe to return.
One of the topmost destinations for Cervical Cancer Treatment is the United Kingdom. It has a variety of accredited hospital, affordable cost of treatment and some of the best medical fraternity. Some of such countries are:
|South Africa||USD 3700|
|United Kingdom||USD 10000|
Apart from the Cervical Cancer Treatment cost, there are a few other daily charges that the patient may have to pay. These are the charges for daily meals and accommodation outside the hospital. The per day extra expenses in the United Kingdom per person are about USD 50 per person.
Some of the best cities in the United Kingdom which offer Cervical Cancer Treatment are:
After the Cervical Cancer Treatment takes place, the average duration of stay at the hospital is about 5 days. This phase is important to ensure that the patient is recovering well and is clinically stable. During this time, several tests are performed before the patient is deemed suitable for discharge.
There are more than 3 hospitals that offer Cervical Cancer Treatment in the United Kingdom. These hospitals have proper infrastructure for the treatment of patients who require kidney transplant. These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in United Kingdom
The healthcare systems in the United Kingdom receive accreditation from QHA Trent and United Kingdom Accreditation Forum. Formed with a vision to improve healthcare quality in Great Britain, QHA Trent strives to lower risks for healthcare providers, patients, and the general public. Service providers and service users have a mechanism to support quality improvement by integrating different accreditation programs with regulatory bodies and other improvement processes. The accreditation bodies have a comprehensive framework for evaluating healthcare facilities and some of the quality aspects are administrative management, patient care, and performance management.
Superior healthcare infrastructure and medical technology innovations are some of the most important factors that make the United Kingdom one of the leading medical tourism destinations in the world. The country’s more focus on investment in technology and communication and transport and has successfully contributed to significant growth in the medical tourism sector. There are some strong reasons for the popularity of the United Kingdom’s healthcare system, such as the availability of a wide range of procedures, appointments and same-day diagnosis, and rapid response multi-disciplinary review teams. Some of the internationally acclaimed institutions in the United Kingdom are London Bridge Hospital, BUPA Cromwell, and Great Ormond Street which are supported by highly professional consultants and all modern facilities.
The United Kingdom boasts of a large pool of world-class doctors who are much competent and skilled in their specialty area. They have to undergo mandatory rigorous training to achieve the highest level of excellence in their niche. The country has top quality doctors who are very efficient in handling even the most complicated cases with ease ant this quality is attributed to their extensive training and education at premier colleges. The doctors have deep expertise in a wide range of procedures like knee replacement, gallbladder removal, and hip replacement which are performed with great precision and accuracy. The country also has some of the most renowned cardiologists, neurologists, gynecologists, and orthopedic doctors who have handled critical cases effectively.
You can visit the United Kingdom without a visa or by applying for a visa waiver depending on the country you are from. Electronic UK visa waiver program is available for countries like Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. The documents required for applying for a medical visa include:
You are allowed to extend your visa by 6 months in case you need further treatment.
United Kingdom is one of the major medical tourism destinations with a large pool of state-of-art hospitals. Some of these hospitals are:
Equipped with modern infrastructure and highly trained and qualified doctors, the hospitals provide the best environment for treatment, ensuring complete patient satisfaction. Some other reasons for the popularity of these hospitals are the efficiency of the nurses, doctors, and other healthcare staff, the food options, the safety aspects, the quality control, patient care, low mortality rate. If you want to find the best hospital in the United Kingdom, you can refer to a few ratings and rankings systems. Currently, Royal Berkshire NHS Hospital holds the top position in the United Kingdom and is ranked 67 in the world.
The United Kingdom has received worldwide recognition for its excellence in procedures like:
According to a report by BAAPS, breast reduction and breast augmentation are the most popular procedures in the country. The United Kingdom is profiled as a country with first-class cancer care due to the latest advancement in medical technology. Hip replacement surgery is also becoming popular in the United Kingdom. According to a report, about 50,000 people seek a hip replacement in the country every year.
The most popular cities that are preferred by medical tourists in the United Kingdom are:
One of the best places to seek treatment in the United Kingdom, Edgbaston Medical Quarter in Birmingham provides easy access to quality treatments, particularly in oncology, trauma, diabetes, and fertility. Birmingham is another leading medical tourist destination with top hospitals, world-class doctors, better connectivity, and excellent infrastructure. London is the epicenter of medical tourism which attracts people from different parts of the world. It is the largest city in the United Kingdom, which is populated with quality hospitals like Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, and The Royal London Hospital.
Yes, vaccines are recommended or required for the United Kingdom. The CDC and WHO recommend the below vaccines for the country:
It takes some time to develop immunity after vaccination, so it is important to get vaccinated at least 8 weeks prior to the travel date. You can travel without getting vaccinated if you have a specific medical condition that prevents you from vaccination. You must check travel advisory issued by the government or contact your hospital in the United Kingdom for complete information on vaccination.
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