Lung cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells that start off in the lungs. Usually, lung cancer starts in the cells that line the air passages. Instead of developing into healthy lung tissue, the cells divide rapidly and form tumours.
Lung cancer can grow and spread beyond the lung to reach other parts of the body through metastasis. Lung cancers can begin in any part of the lung, but 90 percent of lung cancers begin in the epithelial cells, which are the cells lining the larger and smaller airways also known as bronchi and bronchioles.
This is the reason why lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, among both men and women. It is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.
Long-term smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. After smoking, genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke or other forms of air pollution can also increase the risk of lung cancer.
There are two major types of lung cancers, based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope:
It is necessary to determine the stage of lung cancer by finding out how far cancer has spread, before initiating treatment of lung cancer.
The following are the four lung cancer stages of NSCLC:
After the determination of stage, treatment of lung cancer starts with choosing the best suitable option for the patient. However, there is usually no single treatment for lung cancer. So the patient often receives a combination of therapies and palliative care.
Lung cancer symptoms may vary, depending upon where and how widespread the tumour is. A person with lung cancer may have following lung cancer symptoms:
The treatment of lung cancer may include the following modalities:
Surgery is the best treatment if the lung cancer is in its early stages. In the early stages, it is possible to cure a patient completely by removing the tumor and the nearby lymph nodes. But after cancer has spread, it is nearly impossible to remove all of the cancer cells with the help of surgery.
There are some specific types of surgical procedures for different location and kinds of lung cancers, such as wedge resection of the lung (removal of a portion of one lobe), lobectomy (removal of one lobe), pneumonectomy (removal of an entire lung) and lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph nodes in the region of the lungs). After the surgery, margin tissues are further studied to see if cancer cells are present or not.
Lung cancer surgery is a major surgical procedure that requires hospitalization, general anesthesia, and follow-up care for a few weeks to several months. It also carries side effects like any other surgery, including complications related to bleeding, infection, and general anesthesia.
This treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to destroy or shrink lung cancer tumors. Radiation therapy can be given as a curative therapy, palliative therapy, or as adjuvant therapy combined with surgery or chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy damages the molecules that make up the cancer cells. However, it can damage the normal, healthy tissues. But nowadays improved technology can focus the radiation on precise locations for certain lengths of time, thus reducing the risk of damage to the surrounding healthy tissues.
Chemotherapy is a strong medication treatment, which interferes with the cell division process and damage proteins or DNA to reduce cancer cells. NSCLC and SCLC, both types of lung cancers can be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy might be given in the form of pills, intravenous infusion, or as a combination of both.
However, drugs used in chemotherapy also kill normally dividing cells in the body that may lead to unpleasant side effects. Some of the common side effects of chemotherapy are vomiting, diarrhea, appetite loss, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, infections and more. These side effects may be felt temporarily during treatment, and several drugs exist to help patients cope with the symptoms.
Drugs used in this treatment work by targeting specific abnormalities in the cancer cells. Some of the drugs in this treatment can also strengthen the activity of the immune system against cancer cells. But mostly this treatment only works in people whose cancer cells show certain genetic mutations.
USD 13800 is the starting cost of Lung Cancer Treatment Surgery in Malaysia. MSQH are just some of the accreditations which top hospitals in Malaysia hold where a Lung Cancer Treatment is conducted.
The cost of Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia may differ from one medical facility to the other. The cost quoted by some of the best hospitals for Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia generally covers the pre-surgery investigations of the patient. The Lung Cancer Treatment procedure in Malaysia includes the fees of the surgeon, hospitalization and anesthesia as well. Extended hospital stay, complications after the surgery or new diagnosis may affect the overall cost of Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia.
Many hospitals in Malaysia perform Lung Cancer Treatment. The top hospitals for Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia include the following:
The recovery of the patient many vary, depending on several factors. However, on an average, patient is supposed to stay for about 45 days in the country after discharge. This time frame is important to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient is fit to fly back.
Malaysia is considered to be one of the best places for Lung Cancer Treatment in the world. This is because of the availability of some of the best doctors, advanced medical technology and good hospital infrastructure. Some of such countries are:
|Saudi Arabia||USD 25000|
|South Africa||USD 25000|
|South Korea||USD 25000|
|United Arab Emirates||USD 25000|
|United Kingdom||USD 25000|
There are certain additional cost that the patient has to pay apart from the Lung Cancer Treatment cost. These charges starts from USD 50 per person.
The following are some of the best cities for Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia:
After Lung Cancer Treatment, the patient is supposed to stay for about 5 days in the hospital for recovery and monitoring. During the recovery, the patient is carefully monitored and control tests are performed to see that everything is okay. If required, physiotherapy sessions are also planned during recovery in hospital.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer Lung Cancer Treatment in Malaysia. These clinics have proper infrastructure for the treatment of patients who require kidney transplant. These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in Malaysia
Malaysia has a large pool of quality hospitals, such as:
These hospitals are more focused on providing quality treatment and are supported by the latest medical technologies and excellent infrastructure. The hospitals in Malaysia are advanced due to more support from the government through investment in medical infrastructure. Malaysian Hospitals, with well-trained staff and excellent facilities, are on par with well-developed countries and have shown significant improvement in the last ten years.
In Malaysia, most hospitals are accredited by Malaysian Society for Quality in Health (MSQH) and JCI. Around 12 hospitals in Malaysia have received JCI certification and all of them follow the global standards. MSQH is focusing on strengthening the quality of healthcare by partnering with Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and Malaysian Medical Association. There is a strict evaluation process for receiving healthcare accreditation in Malaysia and the interested hospitals have to meet all the requirements set by the accreditation bodies.
Malaysia is an emerging destination for medical tourism and has an effective healthcare system backed by governmental participation and public-private healthcare collaboration. Malaysia has received worldwide recognition for its excellent healthcare system mainly attributed to advanced technology, modern infrastructure, and highly trained medical professionals. With world-class hospitals across Asia and beyond, Malaysia has reported high success rates in cardiology and fertility treatments. Malaysia has a rich culture and several heritage spots which make it one of the most popular medical tourism destinations in the world.
Most of the highly-trained doctors in Malaysia are trained internationally before returning to work in their home country. Malaysia produces one of the finest doctors in the world because it has a strict evaluation process for offering degrees to them, and also the doctors need to serve in the public sector for at least 3 years, making them attain a high level of professionalism. Doctors in Malaysia are exceptionally good at handling IVF and cardiology cases and they have delivered excellent results in these two areas using their holistic treatment approach. Malaysia offers all medical tourists the facility of applying for eVisa for traveling to the country for treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days.
Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) allows all medical tourists to apply for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and residing there for a period of 30 days. eVISA is valid for only 3 months and can be availed from online platforms. You need to provide the following things to obtain an eVisa:
Medical Attendant Visa is granted to the person accompanying the patient to Malaysia and two persons are allowed to travel with the patient.
Malaysia is known for providing some popular procedures, with high success rates, such as prostate surgery, cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy. Cancer treatment through gene therapy is becoming popular in Malaysia as this novel technique guarantees reduced treatment costs, shorter treatment time, minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs. Fertility hospitals and clinics have reported high success rates in IFV due to a number of reasons like the use of the latest technology, trained experts, adherence to strict protocols and safety standards, and a holistic treatment approach. Malaysia has also reported great achievements in orthopedic surgeries and some of the popular procedures include hip replacement, shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery.
Some of the leading medical tourism destinations in Malaysia are
The cities in Malaysia deliver a world-class treatment experience through their superior hospitals backed with state-of-art infrastructure and talented doctors. Both Penang and Kuala Lumpur are the centres of attraction for medical tourists as they are serviced by airlines from around the world; have a number of reasonably-priced hotel rooms and an excellent public transportation system. These cities have become leading medical tourism destinations in Malaysia due to many other factors, such as a large pool of world-class hospitals, rich heritage, scenic value, availability of translators, and safety of tourists.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
Pre-exposure vaccination against rabies is recommended before travel to Malaysia and children are at greater risk of rabies. Don’t forget to get Japanese encephalitis vaccination as is it common in Malaysia. Anyone traveling to Malaysia from a region with a high risk of Yellow Fever, he/she needs to produce International Certificate of Vaccination.
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