Ovarian cancer refers to the abnormal growth of cells in the ovaries, which are an important part of the female reproductive system. Ovaries are two small glands, located on either side of the uterus. They help produce female sex hormones and store or release eggs. An ovarian tumor is it is the eighth most common type of cancer among women. It is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths in women around the world. Ovarian cancer can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated on time, however, the chances of survival are great in the case of early diagnosis.
Ovarian cancer forms when normal ovarian cell growth fails, and there is an uncontrolled growth of cells. Most of the ovarian cancers arise from the lining cells (epithelium) of the ovary. The ovarian tumor can metastasize and spread to other organs of the body.
There is no identified and known cause of ovarian cancer. However, there are some risk factors associated with the disease. Family history (genetics) of ovarian cancer, older age, breast cancer, obesity, and endometriosis are some of the known ovarian cancer risk factors. Other than these, menstrual cycles play a major role in ovarian cancer. The high number of total lifetime ovulations, greater the risk of ovarian cancer. That is, women who have had their periods before the age of 12 are at an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
The risk of ovarian cancer is also high in women suffering from familial melanoma, which is characterized by the presence of certain genes. These genes are inherited from parents and mostly occurs when two or more relatives suffer from the aggressive form of melanoma or skin cancer.
Typically, the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle during the early stage. However, the patients may experience signs of ovarian cancer once the cancer advances and starts to grow. The following are some of the ovarian cancer symptoms:
Pain in the pelvis or belly
Frequent and urgent urination
Changes in bowel habits
Nausea and fatigue
Loss of appetite
These signs of ovarian cancer can be confused with those of ovarian cyst. However, patients must know that ovarian cysts are far more common and primarily affects women during their childbearing age.
Depending on the type, stage, grade of ovarian cancer and general health of the patient, the oncologist will devise the best treatment plan for the patient. However, a patient’s expectations and desires play a major role in selecting the treatment plan. For example, some patients may desire childbirth in the future, while others could be okay with having their uterus. the Fallopian tubes and ovaries removed.
The following are some of the ovarian cancer treatment strategies:
Surgery is often the first and the best treatment for ovarian cancer. Surgical removal of the cancer is done in a vast majority of ovarian cancer patients. The type of surgery opted for depends upon how widespread the cancer is when it is diagnosed.
There are different surgical procedures to get rid of ovarian cancer, such as unilateral oophorectomy (removal of one ovary) or bilateral oophorectomy (removal of both ovaries), salpingectomy (removal of Fallopian tubes), hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), and omentectomy (removal of momentum).
Typically, the organ in question is fully removed in all these procedures. In some of the advanced cancers, complete removal of the cancer cells is not possible. In such cases, the possible amount of tumor is removed in a procedure called debulking surgery.
Such patients require an extensive operation performed by the surgeon, who is a specialized gynecologic oncology surgeon. Therefore, ovarian cancer surgery requires a prolonged stay in the hospital, which lasts for at least three to seven days, plus a recovery period of at least four to six weeks.
Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division process and damages the DNA of the cancer cells to reduce their number and stop them from growing any further. Patients will often benefit greatly from its use in the case of ovarian cancer because ovarian cancer patients are able to tolerate it better because of fewer chemotherapy side effects.
In case of ovarian cancer treatment, chemotherapy drugs can be given into the vein intravenously (IV) or placed directly into the abdomen (IP).
In some cases, chemotherapy may be performed first, followed by a surgery. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Common chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer include paclitaxel, cisplatin, topotecan, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and gemcitabine.
Drugs used in chemotherapy travel throughout the body and can also kill a few normal cells in the body, leading to unpleasant side effects. So, chemotherapy should be followed only if the patient can cope with it. Chemotherapy can cause anemia and leucopenia, besides vomiting, diarrhea, appetite loss, hair loss, and fatigue.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or proton beams to destroy the tumors of ovarian cancer. This can be given as palliative therapy, or as adjuvant therapy combined with surgery or chemotherapy. However, radiation therapy alone does not improve survival rate in people with well-differentiated cancers. Common side effects of radiotherapy treatment are diarrhea, constipation, and frequent urination.
Although estrogen alone does not have any effect on cancer, cutting off a supply of estrogen slows the growth of cancer cells. Hormone therapy can prevent estrogen from reaching the cancer cells, thus suppressing the growth of cancer.
Newer medications are being developed that can target cancer cells directly, but till now this treatment only helps reduce damage to the normal cells and subsidize the side effects of chemotherapy.
Recovery after ovarian cancer treatment can be physically and emotionally painful. This is especially true of the patients had her ovaries and uterus removed completely. There may be certain side effects arising out of sudden menopause and women may face difficulty in adjusting to the life after ovarian cancer treatment.
For women who have had a surgery as a part of the treatment plan, driving after a month of the surgery should not be a problem. However, the best is to seek advice from your doctor at every step and before taking any new step.
Some women may face difficulty concentrating on day-to-day chores after the treatment. Several cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy may further slow down recovery. It is important to take plenty of fluids to recover from treatment and minimize the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is equally important to maintain a proper diet during the recovery period.
Ovarian Cancer Treatment cost in Malaysia starts from about $15000. While there are wide range of hospitals offering Ovarian Cancer Treatment, international patients should always seek MSQH-Certified Hospitals in Malaysia for the best results.
Ovarian Cancer Treatment cost in Malaysia varies from one hospital to the other. The cost quoted by some of the best hospitals for Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Malaysia generally covers the pre-surgery investigations of the patient. The comprehensive Ovarian Cancer Treatment package cost includes the cost of investigations, surgery, medicines and consumables. There are many things that may increase the cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Malaysia, including prolonged hospital stay and complications after the procedure.
There are many hospitals that perform Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Malaysia. The following are some of the most renowned hospitals for Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Malaysia:
After discharge from the hospital, the patient has to stay for another 21 days in the country for complete recovery. This period is important to conduct all the follow-up tests to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient can go back to the home country.
Malaysia is one of the most popular countries for Ovarian Cancer Treatment in the world. The country offers the best cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment, best doctors, and advanced hospital infrastructure. However, there are other countries as mentioned below that are popular for Ovarian Cancer Treatment as well:
|Saudi Arabia||USD 22800|
|South Africa||USD 22800|
|South Korea||USD 22800|
|United Arab Emirates||USD 10000|
|United Kingdom||USD 22800|
Apart from the Ovarian Cancer Treatment cost, there are a few other daily charges that the patient may have to pay. These are the charges for daily meals and accommodation outside the hospital. The per day cost in this case may start from USD 50 per person.
Some of the best cities in Malaysia which offer Ovarian Cancer Treatment are:
The patient has to spend about 5 days in the hospital after Ovarian Cancer Treatment for proper recovery and to get clearance for discharge. The patient is subjected to several biochemistry and radiological scans to see that everything is okay and the recovery is on track. After making sure that patient is clinically stable, discharge is planned.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Malaysia. Such hospitals have the required infrastructure and a dedicated unit where patients can be treated. These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in Malaysia
Malaysia has many reputed hospital groups, such as:
These hospitals are supported by the latest medical technologies and superior infrastructure, ensuring world-class treatment. With a two-tier healthcare system in Malaysia, the hospitals are highly advanced because of extensive support from the Malaysian government through investment in medical infrastructure. Malaysian Hospitals, with well-trained staff and excellent facilities, are on par with well-developed countries and have shown significant improvement in the last ten years.
What healthcare accreditation standards are followed in Malaysia? Total 12 hospitals in Malaysia have JCI certification and each of them complies with the global standards. MSQH is focusing on strengthening the quality of healthcare by partnering with Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and Malaysian Medical Association. There is a strict evaluation process for receiving healthcare accreditation in Malaysia and the interested hospitals have to meet all the requirements set by the accreditation bodies.
Malaysia is an emerging destination for medical tourism and has an effective healthcare system backed by governmental participation and public-private healthcare collaboration. Supported by cutting-edge technology, advanced infrastructure, and skilled medical professionals, Malaysia provides quality and affordable healthcare. With world-class hospitals across Asia and beyond, Malaysia has reported high success rates in cardiology and fertility treatments. Malaysia is also popular among medical tourists because of its food, cultural diversity, and heritage spots.
The doctors in Malaysia have deep expertise in their specialty area and most of them are trained internationally before they start work in their home country. Malaysia produces one of the finest doctors in the world because it has a strict evaluation process for offering degrees to them, and also the doctors need to serve in the public sector for at least 3 years, making them attain a high level of professionalism. Although the doctors in Malaysia have expertise in performing a wide range of procedures, they have delivered excellent results in IVF and cardiology. Medical tourists can apply for eVisa for traveling to Malaysia to get medical treatment and reside there for a period of 30 days under the Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP).
Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) allows all medical tourists to apply for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and residing there for a period of 30 days. eVISA remains valid for 3 months and it can be availed through online platforms. A candidate would require below things to apply for an eVisa.
Maximum two persons can accompany the patient under separate Medical Attendant Visas and their visa validity will be the same as Medical Visa.
Malaysia is known for providing some popular procedures, with high success rates, such as prostate surgery, cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy. Malaysia has effectively treated a large number of cancer patients through gene therapy which brings several benefits like reduced treatment costs, shorter treatment time, and minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs. Fertility hospitals and clinics have reported high success rates in IFV due to a number of reasons like the use of the latest technology, trained experts, adherence to strict protocols and safety standards, and a holistic treatment approach. Hip replacement, shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery are some of the popular orthopedic procedures in Malaysia.
Some of the leading medical tourism destinations in Malaysia are:
These cities have world-class hospitals with superior infrastructure and highly trained hospitals, all these contributing to an amazing patient experience. Kuala Lumpur and Penang attract most of the medical tourists due to their excellent public transportation system, availability of cheap accommodation, and connectivity through airlines. A large number of hospitals, scenic value, rich culture, availability of translators, and safety of tourists also contribute to the popularity of these cities in medical tourism.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
Pre-exposure vaccination against rabies is recommended before travel to Malaysia and children are at greater risk of rabies. Make sure you get vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis before you travel to Malaysia because this is a common disease there. If you are coming from a country with a high risk of Yellow Fever, you might need an International Certificate of Vaccination.
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