Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) cost in South Africa

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About the Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of an open heart surgery that intends to improve the flow of blood to the heart. It involves the placement of a coronary artery bypass graft, which is retrieved from a healthy artery in the body, and placed in the position of the blocked portion of the artery that supplies blood to the heart. CABG surgery is a complex, yet common procedure.

A waxy substance called plaque may deposit in good amount in the coronary arteries of the heart over a period of time. As time advances, the plaque starts hardening and eventually ruptures and breaks open. The plaque interferes with blood flow as arteries grow narrow at the affected region. A blood clot develops when the plaque ruptures. The artery may get blocked completely is the size of the clot is big enough to stop the flow of blood to the heart. This may eventually lead to serious events such as heart attack and also put the individual at the risk of death.

The person may experience chest pain and discomfort when the heart is deprived of rich oxygenated blood This pain is referred to as angina. Breathlessness and  fatigue are some of the other problems associated with coronary heart disease.

How does CABG improve the heart condition

Coronary artery bypass surgery aims at improving the overall blood circulation to the heart. A part of healthy artery or vein from another part of the body is taken and is grafted or connected to the blocked coronary artery for bypass. This artery or vein goes around the blocked portion of the coronary artery and establishes a new path for the blood to flow to the heart, thus reducing the chance of a heart attack. In a single surgery, surgeons can bypass multiple coronary arteries. Severe blockages can be treated with this procedure.

CABG is conducted when there are one or two blockages in the artery. High risk CABG is conducted when there are multiple blockages in the artery and the blood flow to the heart is severely restricted.

How is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) performed?

How is Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed?

There are two approaches to conduct CABG – open heart surgery and laparoscopic bypass heart surgery. The latter is a type of minimally invasive heart bypass surgery, which involves the creation of smaller incisions. This results in minimum discomfort and complications and allows for faster recovery and healing.

Laparoscopic bypass heart surgery is mostly preferred when there is not much blockage in the coronary artery. Open heart surgery, on the other hand, is conducted in complicated cases. High-risk CABG is mostly conducted as an open heart surgical procedure.

  • The selection of a particular approach, however, depends on a number of factors, including the overall health of the patient and the experience of the surgeon. CABG involves the use of general anaesthesia. Typically, an incision down the middle of the chest is made by the cardiac surgeon. He then uses a saw like instrument to access the breastbone or the sternum. This cutting of the middle of the sternum is referred to as median sternonomy. During CABG, the heart has to be first cooled with iced salt water. Along with this, a preservative solution has to be injected in the arteries of the heart. This procedure is referred to as cardioplegia, where damage is minimized due to reduced blood flow to the heart during the surgery.
  • A cardiopulmonary bypass must be established before a bypass surgery can take place. To channelize venous blood out of the body, plastic tubes must be placed in the right atrium. A membrane oxygenator, which is like a plastic sheeting, is employed to channelize it to the heart lung machine.
  • The oxygenated blood is then returned to the body. To allow the bypass to connect with the aorta, the main aorta is cross clamped during the surgery. This maintains a bloodless field. Saphenous vein from the leg is the commonly used as coronary artery bypass graft.
  • Beyond the narrowing of the vessel or the coronary artery, the graft vessel is sewed to the coronary arteries. The other end of the grafted vein or vessel is made to attach with the aorta. Nowadays, chest wall arteries or more specifically, the internal mammary artery is used as a coronary artery bypass graft.
  • The artery is then separated from the wall of the chest to connect to the left anterior descending artery. It can also be connected to one of the major branches which is beyond the blockage.
  • Internal mammary arteries have an advantage over venous grafts. The former remains open for a longer period of time. The percentage of being open in the case of venous grafts is around 66 percent, while for internal mammary arteries it is 90 percent.
  • The aorta must be clamped off for 60 minutes while the body is supported by cardiopulmonary bypass. The use of 3, 4 or 5 bypasses has grown very common. At the end of the surgery, the sternum is wired together with the help of stainless steel while the incision made in the chest is sewn. Plastic tubes are kept undisturbed to allow any blood drainage from the region around the heart. The chest tubes are removed right after surgery along with the breathing tube.

Recovery from Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Recovery

Patients are transferred to the ICU right after the surgery and shifted to the patient ward a day later. Heart rhythm disturbances are discovered in 25 percent of the patients within a period of 3 or 4 days after the surgery. They are temporary atrial fibrillations associated with surgical trauma. Such patients respond well to standard medical therapies.

They can be weaned within a period of a month after the surgery. From one week to one day, the range of stay in the hospital may vary from one patient to the other. Young patients are usually discharged within two days. The recovery time can be very long and the range of physical activities must be kept to a minimum.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the factors affecting the cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa?

The cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa may differ from one medical facility to the other. The Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) package cost usually includes all the expenses related to pre and post surgery expenses of the patient. The Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) procedure in South Africa includes the fees of the surgeon, hospitalization and anesthesia as well. Extended hospital stay, complications after the surgery or new diagnosis may affect the overall cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa.

Which are some of the best hospitals in South Africa for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)t?

There are many hospitals that perform Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa. For quick reference, the following are some of the leading hospitals for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa:

  1. Ahmed Kathrada Private Hospital
  2. Ethekwini Hospital and Heart Centre
  3. Life Kingsbury Hospital
How many days does it take to recover post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa?

While the speed of recovery may vary from patient to patient, they are still required to stay for about 21 days after discharge. This is important to ensure that the surgery was successful. During this time, control and follow-up tests take place to check for medical fitness.

Which are some of the other popular destinations for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

South Africa is undoubtedly one of the best countries for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in the world. It offers the best medical expertise and good patient experience at an affordable cost. However, there are other countries as mentioned below that are popular for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) as well:

CountryCost
CzechiaUSD 15000
IndiaUSD 4200
IsraelUSD 30000
MalaysiaUSD 18000
PolandUSD 6900
SingaporeUSD 56000
SpainUSD 27000
ThailandUSD 23400
TunisiaUSD 7900
TurkeyUSD 10000
United Arab EmiratesUSD 23500
How much are the other expenses in South Africa apart from the cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

Apart from the cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), the patient is also required to pay additionally for daily meals and guest house accommodation. The extra charges may start from USD 50 per person.

Which are the best cities in South Africa for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Procedure?

There are many cities that offer Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa, including the following:

  1. Cape Town
  2. Lenasia
  3. Johannesburg
  4. Durban
How many days does one have to spend in the hospital for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa?

The patient is supposed to stay at the hospital for about 5 days after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) for monitoring and care. During the recovery, the patient is carefully monitored and control tests are performed to see that everything is okay. If required, physiotherapy sessions are also planned during recovery in hospital.

What is the average rating of Hospitals in South Africa offering Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

The average rating for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) hospitals in South Africa is 2.9. This rating is calculated on the basis of different parameters such as attitude of the nurses, cleanliness, quality of food and the pricing policy.

How many hospitals offer Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa?

There are more than 3 hospitals that offer Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) in South Africa. The above listed hospitals are approved to perform the surgery and have proper infrastructure to handle Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) patients. These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in South Africa

FAQ's Related to South Africa

Which are the popular multispecialty hospital groups in South Africa?

Some of the world-class multispecialty hospitals in South Africa are:

  1. Ahmed Al-Kadi Private Hospital
  2. Busamed Hillcrest Private Hospital
  3. Busamed Gateway Private Hospital
  4. Busamed Modderfontein Private Hospital
  5. Busamed Lowveld Hospital
  6. Lenmed Ethekwini Hospital and Heart Centre
  7. Busamed Paardevlei Private Hospital
  8. Life Bay View Private Hospital
  9. Lenmed Shifa Hospital

The performance of these hospitals have been evaluated on the below parameters:

  1. Providing clear information about medicines to patients
  2. Effective engagement between nursing staff/doctors and patients;
  3. Suitability of the hospital environment for meeting the needs of patients
  4. Effectively managing pain.

The hospitals are bound to provide quality treatment as the government of South Africa has framed strict healthcare rules to ensure there is no quality lapse. The hospitals are backed with state-of-art infrastructure, the latest medical equipment, and well-trained doctors and offer world-class facilities to enhance the patient experience.

What healthcare accreditation standards are followed in South Africa?

The healthcare system in South Africa is accredited by Joint Commission International (JCI) and Council for Health Service Accreditation of Southern Africa (COHSASA). In order to ensure coordinated and integrated care is provided by healthcare facilities, COHSASA sets and assesses standards for all sectors and departments of a healthcare system. The SafeCare program launched by COHSASA, JCI, and SafeCare Foundation ensures the implementation of internationally recognized standards to improve health care delivery. The accreditation bodies ensure that the hospitals are consistent in delivering quality care, so, initially, they grant accreditation to hospitals and clinics only for 2 years which gets extended if the quality is maintained.

Why should I opt for healthcare in South Africa?

One of the leading medical tourism destinations, South Africa offers affordable healthcare and has superior infrastructure. Some other factors which contribute to the growth of medical tourism in South Africa are use of cutting-edge technology, new facilities provided by hospitals, doctors trained overseas, and a large number of accredited hospitals. South Africa’s recent advancement in stem cell therapy has made it one of the most preferred countries for seeking advanced medical treatment. The patient-centric hospitals in South Africa help you with all kinds of organization and administrative tasks and provide a world-class patient experience through all-inclusive care and assistance on a 24/7 basis.

How is the quality of doctors in South Africa?

The doctors in South Africa strive to provide quality treatment utilizing their deep subject knowledge and hands-on experience in handling various complex cases. Many doctors in South Africa receive their training in foreign countries like Australia and Cuba which provide them global exposure and make them more competent in handling cases with high precision and accuracy. The doctors deliver great results in dental procedures and fertility treatments and provide complete patient satisfaction through a holistic approach. The high quality of doctors in the country is attributed to factors like their patient-centric approach, incorporation of the human touch in treatment, education at reputed colleges, and adherence to global standards.

How to obtain a medical visa in South Africa?

A person can apply for a medical visa to South Africa for a period of 90 days. The High Commission helps one decide for how long a visa can be extended. People must apply for a temporary residency permit if they require medical treatment for longer than three months. The validity of a visa starts the day it is granted by the High Commission and not on the date of departure. Also, visa applications will not be accepted more than 30 days prior to departure. You need to produce the below documents to apply for a medical visa:

  1. Passport
  2. Passport-sized photographs
  3. Online Application form
  4. Full return flight reservation
  5. Proof of stay in South Africa
  6. Signed official medical letter from medical institution
  7. Signed medical letter from a recognized local practitioner
What are the popular procedures available in South Africa?

The most sought-after procedures in South Africa are total knee replacement, meniscus repairs, hip replacement, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Some other procedures which have gained popularity in South Africa are cosmetic surgery and infertility treatment. Egg donation program is very popular in the country and you have an option of having either a surgical or non-surgical procedure, with very low waiting times. People select South Africa to avail these procedures due to several reasons, such as world-class hospitals with superior infrastructure and highly-skilled doctors, fast recovery, and use of cutting-edge medical technology.

Which are the most popular cities in South Africa for medical treatment?

Some popular cities of South Africa that attract a huge number of medical tourists every year are Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria, and Durban. Cape Town a major tourist attraction that has a rich culture, world-class doctors, and modern health facilities. Besides providing quality treatment, these cities are also known for having a better public transportation system, cheap hotels, and connectivity through airlines. Johannesburg’s public and private healthcare industry coordinates with South Africa's medical schools to create internationally recognized medical specialists and the quality of medical care is on par with Great Britain.

Is it mandatory to take vaccinations before going to South Africa?

Yes, some vaccines are highly recommended or required for South Africa. WHO and the National Travel Health Network and Centre recommend the following vaccinations: hepatitis A, yellow fever, rabies and tetanus, hepatitis B, typhoid, cholera. Infants 6 to 11 months old travelling to the country should get 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine before travel. You need to go for typhoid vaccination if you are going to stay with friends or relatives or visiting smaller cities or rural areas. You can connect with your doctor or the hospital in South Africa for the required vaccines. Also, refer to the travel advisory issued by the government.

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