Cornea transplant surgery is also known as keratoplasty. It is a common surgery and has a good amount of success rate as well. Cornea transplant is required for people who have their corneal tissue damaged due to scarring or bruises. This affects the normal vision, which cannot be further corrected with the help of lens or medication. The cornea can swell thus resulting in distorted vision and it can grow painful, thus destroying the tissue gradually.
The following are some of the reasons why cornea replacement surgery may be required:
Cornea transplant surgery involves the replacement of the diseased cornea with a healthy cornea from a donor and it is performed commonly. However, there are some risks of rejection that would always be there. A corneal transplant is a surgery conducted to replace the cornea with a tissue retrieved from a donor. It is one of the most common types of transplants done. The cornea mainly comprises of five layers and it is not always necessary that all the layers are transplanted during the surgery.
In case of full thickness cornea transplant, all the 5 layers of the recipient are replaced with the healthy corneal layers of the donor. Lamellar cornea transplant includes only transplanting some of the layers of a donor’s cornea in the recipient patient’s corneal layers. The layers that are transplanted in this kind of surgery may include the deepest layer, which is known as the endothelium and this is generally known as the posterior lamellar cornea transplant. Some of the included procedures of this type of transplant include Descemet’s Stripping Automated
Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) or Descemet’s Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK). It may also have layers nearer to the surface included, which is referred as anterior lamellar cornea transplant. When only a portion of the cornea is diseased and not the entire cornea, then the lamellar transplants appears to be much more suitable compared to a full penetrating transplant.
Cornea transplant surgery is conducted on an outpatient basis, wherein the patient can leave the hospital on the same day of the surgery. In the pre-op or the waiting area, the patient is prepared for the surgery by giving medications, which would relax the patient.
A needle is attached to a tubing, which aids in delivering medications and fluids throughout the procedure to the vein of the patient. Electro leads are attached to the patient’s chest to have the performance of heart monitored at all stages. The above are some of the standard safety precautions.
Depending upon the condition of the patient, local or general anaesthesia may be administered before the surgery. Some of the determining factors can be age, length of the surgery, levels of anxiety of the patients, general health of the patient, and of course, the doctor’s choice. This should be discussed with the patient before the operation.
Once in the operating room, the patient’s eyelids are washed gently and carefully and then it is covered with plastic sterile drapes. Through a plastic tube, oxygen can be occasionally supplied somewhere close to the nose where the tube is placed. Most patients doze off during the procedure, while others may remain slightly conscious.
The instrument used to scrape off the part of the cornea is a circular cookie-like cutter instrument, which is called a trephine. It is employed to have the center of the diseased cornea removed. Next, a button-sized similar portion is cut from the cornea of the donor. With the help of nylon sutures, the tissue of the donor’s cornea is sewn in the recipient’s eye in the already cut section.
The sutures are employed in corneal transplant and they are composed of monofilament nylon and are very tiny, almost one-third the thickness of human hair. The patterns of suturing can be different, depending upon the choices of the surgeon and their training and also on the specific problem that is being addressed. In certain cases, 16 individual (interrupted) sutures can be used, while for others, continuous or running sutures can be used that closely resemble the hemstitch. A combination of both can be used and the results obtained are more or less similar.
With the conclusion of the surgery, a patch along with a shield is applied to the eye for protection. Now the patient is taken to the recovery room, wherein some of the parameters of the body are monitored and the patient is allowed to recover and get back to his or her senses before being discharged off.
The cornea has no blood supply, hence the healing of the procedure is slow. Sutures are kept for 3 to 12 months and if the vision is found to be really good, then they are kept in place. They do not cause any discomfort since they are buried but if they break, then their removal is required. At other times, the sutures can loosen. The removal of the sutures is a painless and simple procedure.
Immediately after a cornea transplant, the patients may experience pain, which can be relieved with medications such as Tylenol. The eye will remain patched until the healing of the epithelium is not completed. The surgeon checks immediately after the day of the surgery and advises whether it should be worn any longer or not.
Eye drops should be administered as prescribed and strenuous activities should be avoided for a few weeks. A pair of glass must be worn for a duration recommended by the surgeon. Watching the television does not cause any discomfort to the eyes. However, contact the surgeon if you experience discomfort in the eye or pain as soon as possible.
Cornea Transplant package cost in Malaysia has different inclusions and exclusions. The cost quoted by some of the best hospitals for Cornea Transplant in Malaysia generally covers the pre-surgery investigations of the patient. The treatment cost usually includes the expenses related to hospitalization, surgery, nursing, medicines, and anesthesia. Post-surgical complications, new findings and delayed recovery may have an impact on the total Cornea Transplant cost in Malaysia.
There are several best hospitals for Cornea Transplant in Malaysia. Some of the best hospitals for Cornea Transplant in Malaysia include the following:
While the speed of recovery may vary from patient to patient, they are still required to stay for about 21 days after discharge. This time frame is important to ensure that the surgery was successful and the patient is fit to fly back.
Malaysia is undoubtedly one of the best countries for Cornea Transplant in the world. It offers the best medical expertise and good patient experience at an affordable cost. However, there are other countries as mentioned below that are popular for Cornea Transplant as well:
Apart from the Cornea Transplant cost, the patient may have to pay for additional daily expenses such as for guest house after discharge and meals. These charges starts from USD 50 per person.
Some of the cpopular cities in Malaysia that offer Cornea Transplant include the following:
After the Cornea Transplant takes place, the average duration of stay at the hospital is about 1 days. The patient is subjected to several biochemistry and radiological scans to see that everything is okay and the recovery is on track. After making sure that patient is clinically stable, discharge is planned.
There are more than 1 hospitals that offer Cornea Transplant in Malaysia. These clinics have propoer infrastructure as well as offer good quality of services when it comes to Cornea Transplant These hospitals comply with all the rules and regulations as dictated by the regulatory bodies and medical association in Malaysia
Some of the top doctors for Cornea Transplant in Malaysia are:
Malaysia has a large pool of quality hospitals, such as:
These hospitals are supported by the latest medical technologies and superior infrastructure, ensuring world-class treatment. With a two-tier healthcare system in Malaysia, the hospitals are highly advanced because of extensive support from the Malaysian government through investment in medical infrastructure. Malaysian Hospitals, with well-trained staff and excellent facilities, are on par with well-developed countries and have shown significant improvement in the last ten years.
In Malaysia, most hospitals are accredited by Malaysian Society for Quality in Health (MSQH) and JCI. Total 12 hospitals in Malaysia have JCI certification and each of them complies with the global standards. MSQH, which promotes safety and quality in the healthcare services in Malaysia, has entered into partnership with Malaysia’s Ministry of Health, Association of Private Hospitals Malaysia and Malaysian Medical Association. There is a lengthy evaluation process for granting accreditation to a hospital in order to ensure international standards are met.
One of the leading medical tourism destinations in the world, Malaysia boasts of having a strong healthcare system supported by public-private healthcare collaboration and governmental participation. Supported by cutting-edge technology, advanced infrastructure, and skilled medical professionals, Malaysia provides quality and affordable healthcare. Malaysia has achieved high success rates in fertility treatments and cardiology with world-class hospitals. Malaysia has a rich culture and several heritage spots which make it one of the most popular medical tourism destinations in the world.
The high-quality doctors in Malaysia have global exposure which makes them efficient in treating various conditions. Malaysia produces one of the finest doctors in the world because it has a strict evaluation process for offering degrees to them, and also the doctors need to serve in the public sector for at least 3 years, making them attain a high level of professionalism. Doctors in Malaysia have received worldwide recognition for their high success rates in IVF and cardiac procedures. Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) allows all medical tourists to apply for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and residing there for a period of 30 days.
Medical tourists under Malaysian Healthcare Travellers Program (MHTP) are eligible for applying for eVISA for traveling to Malaysia and living in the country for a period of 30 days. eVISA can be availed through online platforms and is valid for 3 months. To apply for an eVisa, a candidate will require:To apply for an eVisa, a candidate will require:
Two attendants can accompany the patient to Malaysia under Medical Attendant Visa.
The most sought-after procedures available in Malaysia are prostate surgery, cosmetic surgery, dental work, vitiligo treatment, cancer care, discectomy. Malaysia makes advances in effective cancer treatment using gene therapy, ensuring shorter treatment time, reduced treatment costs, and minimal adverse effects of current chemo-drugs. Hospitals and clinics in Malaysia are equipped with the latest technology to perform Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), which has a marvelous success rate of 55 to 60. Hip replacement, shoulder replacement, knee replacement surgery are some of the popular orthopedic procedures in Malaysia.
Some of the leading medical tourism destinations in Malaysia are:
The cities in Malaysia deliver a world-class treatment experience through their superior hospitals backed with state-of-art infrastructure and talented doctors. Both Penang and Kuala Lumpur are the centres of attraction for medical tourists as they are serviced by airlines from around the world; have a number of reasonably-priced hotel rooms and an excellent public transportation system. Some other reasons why these cities have become the world’s epicenter of medical tourism are a large number of quality hospitals, rich culture, scenic value, and availability of translators, and safety of tourists.
A medical tourist traveling to Malaysia needs to get below vaccines:
Pre-exposure vaccination against rabies is recommended before travel to Malaysia and children are at greater risk of rabies. Make sure you get vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis before you travel to Malaysia because this is a common disease there. If you are coming from a country with a high risk of Yellow Fever, you might need an International Certificate of Vaccination.
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