Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. It can metastasize and spread to other body parts. Colorectal cancer is dangerous and can be life-threatening. But death rate from colorectal cancer has dropped in the recent years, thanks to advance screening techniques and better colorectal treatment options.
Colorectal cancer is also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Colorectal cancer begins as an abnormal growth of cells in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. This abnormal growth is called a polyp.
Some types of polyps can change into cancer over the course of several years. But it does not mean that all polyps have the tendency to become cancerous. The chance of changing a polyp into colorectal cancer depends on the type of polyp that grows.
Colorectal cancer can affect men and women equally. However, studies have proven that men might develop it at a younger age.
There is no definite cause of colorectal cancer, but old age and certain lifestyle factors can increase colorectal cancer risk. Some of these colorectal cancer risk factors include the following:
A majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinoma. If you have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, there are 95 percent chances that it is an adenocarcinoma. But there are some other types of colorectal cancer such as carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal, lymphomas, and sarcomas.
There are no early signs of colorectal cancer, but once it grows, the patients may experience the following colon cancer symptoms:
After the determination of the stage, the doctor chooses the best suitable treatment options for the patient. The treatment plan prepared is specific to every patient and is best suited to meet the individual needs. The treatment plan may include the following options.
Different types of surgery options can be used as per the identified stage of colorectal cancer. Surgery can be divided into two major segments: Early stage colorectal cancer surgery and advanced stage colorectal cancer surgery.
Early stage colorectal cancer surgery: This is a minimally-invasive form of surgery, which is typically recommended when the cancer is small and has not spread to other parts of the body.
Early stage colorectal cancer surgery includes the following procedures:
This is a more invasive surgical option, recommended when cancer has grown into or through your colon. It can be of the following types:
In chemotherapy treatment, an anti-cancer drug is used to destroy the cancerous cells. It is commonly used before surgery, in an attempt to shrink a tumor before its surgical removal. It can also be given to relieve symptoms of colon cancer, in case it has spread to other parts of the body.
A certain number of chemotherapy cycles are also repeated after the surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells. This helps minimize the chances of cancer recurrence.
In this treatment, radiation beams such as X-ray or proton beam are used to kill cancer cells. It also prevents cancer cells from multiplying any further. This treatment is more commonly used for rectal cancer treatment before surgery to shrink the tumor. It can also be used after the surgery. Radiation therapy is the best treatment if cancer has penetrated through the wall of the rectum or traveled to nearby lymph nodes.
Targeted drug therapy is typically used for people with advanced colon cancer. It can be given alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Specific drugs help cancer cells commit suicide and strengthen the immune system. However, this treatment comes with limited benefits and risk of side effects.
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