The last part of the gastrointestinal system is referred as the colon and it is 5-6 cm long. It is ‘U’ shaped and it starts from the distal part of the small intestine and is connected to the rectum and anus. It absorbs the fluids, processes the metabolic waste products, and eliminates through the rectum and anus. The removal of the colon is called colectomy.
There are different types of colectomies such as complete colectomy, right hemicolectomy, left hemicolectomy, sigmoid colectomy, and proctocolectomy. The surgical removal of the left side of the colon (descending colon) is called left hemicolectomy surgery. The surgical removal of the cecum, ascending colon, and the hepatic flexure (right side of the colon) is called as the right hemicolectomy surgery.