Overview of Bone Marrow and Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow is a spongy tissue that fills the inside space of the bones. It is the place where most of the body’s blood cells are produced and stored. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure used to infuse blood-forming stem cells into the body to replace bone marrow that is not making enough healthy blood cells. Generally, a bone marrow transplant is also known as a stem cell transplant. An individual might need a bone marrow transplant if the bone marrow stops working and doesn’t produce sufficient healthy blood cells. A bone marrow transplant might use cells from your own body (called an autologous transplant) or from a donor (called an allogeneic transplant). This procedure is a special therapy for people with some cancers or other diseases. Bone marrow transplant is used successfully in order to treat diseases like lymphomas, aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, immune deficiency disorders, and certain solid tumour cancers.
Do we have any affordable Medical Packages for such transplants?
There are many packages available in the market for bone marrow transplant but only some of them can be worth buying. You must explore different packages available and do a comparative study before making any decision. Bone marrow transplant package at MediGence comes with excellent benefits as it offers huge discounts and numerous benefits, such as no cancellation charges, pick and drop facility, free telemedicine consultation, tour for 2, treatment at world-class best hospitals for BMT, accommodation and food arrangements, etc.
Bone Marrow Transplant Package
Explanation of Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure done to replace bone marrow that has been either damaged or destroyed by infection, chemotherapy or diseases. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside the bones.
The procedure involves placing blood stem cells that travel to the bone marrow to produce new healthy blood cells and effectively promote growth of new marrow. A bone marrow transplant replaces the damaged stem cells with normal and healthy cells. This helps the body make sufficient platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells to avoid bleeding disorders, anaemia or infections. Healthy stem cells can come from a potential donor, or even could come from your own body. In this case, stem cells are harvested before radiation treatment or chemotherapy is started. These healthy cells are stored and then used in transplantation.
Countries where BMT Surgery Packages are easily available are listed below:
Why should I purchase a Bone Marrow Transplant Package?
A Bone Marrow Transplant Package offers numerous advantages. This helps you save a lot of money as you get an attractive discount. The package offers multiple benefits, such as a complete refund on cancellation of the package, city tour, treatment with the best transplant surgeons, free telemedicine, etc. You will also get assistance to make your journey hassle free like accommodation, food, airport transfer,visa assistance, and much more.
Cost of Bone Marrow Transplant Package
The cost of a Bone Marrow Transplant Package starts from $23,000 which is lower than the price offered by hospitals. You get an attractive discount on these packages. However, the cost may differ depending on a number of factors, such as type of surgery, technology used, pre existing condition, age of the patient, etc.
There are some countries where you can avail the best Bone Marrow Transplant Package. Those countries boast the best doctors, the latest equipment,world-class hospitals and latest infrastructure. Huge discounts are given on the package, helping you save a lot and enjoy excellent facilities and services.
Can we avail of any post-care surgery packages present in the market?
Yes, you can avail post-surgery packages after undergoing bone marrow transplant. Depending on the type of treatment received, post-operative care services, such as tele-rehabilitation, physical rehabilitation, virtual consultation, and review of reports can also be offered to patients. Oncea treating doctor suggests the need for post-operative care, the team at MediGence will guide you to avail the same.
Long-Term Outlook after a Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery
A bone marrow transplant is able to treat some diseases. The goal of a bone marrow transplant depends on the patient’s condition and generally includes curing or controlling your disease, improving your quality of life, and extending your life. Some people may have few side effects from a bone marrow transplant. Others might face short- and long-term side effects. People with a bone marrow transplant have more chances of surviving for more than 15 years.
Read More about- Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Types of Bone Marrow Transplants
There are three main types of bone marrow transplants based on who the donor is. These different types of BMT include:
- Autologous bone marrow transplant:In this type, the donor is the patient herself/himself. Stem cells are extracted from patients through bone marrow harvest and apheresis (collecting the peripheral blood stem cells), and then transferred back to the patient after treatment.
- Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: In this procedure, a donor shares the same genetic types as the patient. First, stem cells are extracted by bone marrow harvest and apheresis from a genetically matching donor, generally, a brother or sister.
- Umbilical cord blood transplant: Here stem cells are extracted from an umbilical cord right after delivery of a baby. These stem cells later mature to become functioning blood cells more effectively than the stem cells extracted from the bone marrow of another adult or child. These stem cells are first tested and then counted, typed, and frozen until they are required for a transplant.
Read More about- Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant
Who is suggested for Bone Marrow Transplant?
The goal of bone marrow transplant is to treat several diseases and many types of cancer. When the doses of radiation or chemotherapy required to cure a cancer are so high that an individual’s bone marrow stem cells could be permanently destroyed or damaged by the treatment, a bone marrow transplant might be needed.
When & why is a Bone Marrow Transplant required?
Bone marrow transplants are generally performed when an individual’s marrow is not healthy well enough to function properly. It may be due to chronic disease, infections,or cancer treatments. Here are some reasons for a bone marrow transplant:
- Aplastic anaemia: In this, marrow stops making blood cells.
- Cancer: It affects the marrow. Such cancers include multiple myeloma, leukaemia, and lymphoma.
- Damaged bone marrow because of chemotherapy treatment.
- Congenital neutropenia: An inherited problem causing recurring infection.
- Sickle cell anaemia:This causes misshapen red blood cells.
- Thalassemia: The body makes an abnormal type of haemoglobin.
The risk associated with BMT
There is a risk of infections after BMT. An individual might have side effects from getting another person’s stem cells, including a risk of infection graft-versus-host disease. Many people also have a “graft-versus-cancer cell effect.” It is crucial that you are aware of both possible benefits and the risks before treatment starts. You need to discuss them with the treatment team as well as your family.
The myth saying donating bone marrow takes a long time (It’s your precious time and it’s never long when saving someone’s life)
The short story goes here
Hafsat Ibrahim Saleh, a 25-year-old girl from Nigeria suffered from sickle cell disease. Hafsat chose to travel to India for bone marrow transplant along with her mother and sister. On the internet, she came across MediGence. Hafsat sent her medical records and test reports to MediGence’s case managers. MediGence conducted a thorough review of her medical condition and suggested several treatment alternatives in India. She and her family selected BLK-MAX Hospital in Delhi for undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Hafsat chose Dr. Dharma Choudhary, a popular BMT surgeon in India. The team at MediGence made arrangements for a visa as soon as she decided to visit India. Hafsat got her visa in a short duration of time. MediGence also booked a hotel within their budget. For the procedure’s prerequisites, MediGence cooperated with the specialists and hospital. The surgery was done without a hitch. The patient as well as her family were too pleased with how smoothly the procedure was done. Saleh was released from the hospital after getting rehabilitation and proper care.
Read full Story– About Ms. Saleh successful BMT
Diseases that are commonly getting treated after BMT
Diseases that can be treated after BMT are:
- Multiple myeloma
- Severe aplastic anaemia
- Some solid-tumor cancer
- Immune deficiency disorders
- Immune deficiencies
- Inborn errors of metabolism
- Myelodysplastic syndrome
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Plasma cell disorder
- POEMS syndrome
Conditions for matching Donor & Recipient
Matching is an important part of BMT and involves typing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissues. The antigens present on the surface of bone marrow cells generally determine the genetic makeup of an individual’s immune system. There are about 100 HLA antigens, but it is believed there are some major antigens that decide if a recipient and donor match. A perfect HLA match between patient and donor is the most crucial matching factor. A doctor selects many donors whose HLA matches the candidate at a basic level. Then, the doctor asks for additional testing in order to determine which donor too closely matches the patient. If a patient has several matches, the doctor will consider other factors like the donor’s gender, age, blood type and BMI.
What complications and side effects may happen following BMT?
Like any cancer treatment, bone marrow transplant can cause side effects. These may be different for everyone. The risks depend on your general health, the type of transplant, and many other factors. Many side effects vanish with time, but some of them can be permanent.
The following complications may happen with a bone marrow transplant:
- Infections: Infections are likely among patients with bone marrow suppression.
- Low platelets or low red blood cells: Can cause Thrombocytopenia (or low platelets) and anaemia (or low red blood cells).
- Pain: Pain relating to mouth sores and gastrointestinal irritation may occur.
- Fluid overload: It is a complication that can cause liver damage, high blood pressure and pneumonia.
- Respiratory distress: Respiratory status might be compromised during transplant.
- Organ damage: The heart and liver may be damaged during transplantation.
- Graft failure: Failure of the graft is a common complication.
- Graft-versus-host disease: It can be a serious complication.
When should one go for BMT Surgery?
A stem cell transplant is opted when your body can’t make enough blood cells it needs as a stem or the bone marrow cells have failed. Your bone marrow and blood cells may have become diseased. In such a case,an individual needs healthy stem cells in order to replace the diseased bone stem/marrow cells. When the dose of radiation or chemotherapy required to cure certain cancer are so high that an individual’s bone marrow stem cells would be damaged permanently or destroyed by the treatment, a bone marrow transplant might be needed. Bone marrow transplants might also be required if the bone marrow has been much destroyed by a disease.
Conditions Required for Bone Marrow Transplant
An individual who meets certain criteria might be considered for a bone marrow transplant. The doctor will explain your risk of complications of bone marrow transplant. Identifying as well as evaluating patients who could benefit from BMT involves several factors, including prior therapies, age, overall health, disease, and disease stage. Healthy person between the ages of 18 to 60 years of age could be an ideal candidate for a bone marrow transplant. In order to register as a blood stem cell donor safely, the maximum Body-Mass-Index limit is 40 kg/m2. Doctors also match donors to the patient based on his/her human leukocyte antigen (or HLA) tissue type.
Advance preparations for donor & recipient
A series of tests are used to assess the patient’s health and the status of your condition. The tests also ensure that the patient is physically prepared for the procedure. The evaluation might take many days or more. A long, thin tube is implanted into a large vein in the neck and chest. The catheter generally remains there during the treatment. In case of a transplant using an individual’s own stem cells is planned, they will undergo a procedure known as apheresis to collect blood stem cells. If anyone is having a transplant using stem cells from the donor, they will need a donor. After a donor has been found, stem cells are collected from that individual for the transplant. After undergoing the pre-transplant tests, you will start a process called conditioning in which chemotherapy and radiation are used to suppress the immune system, prepare bone marrow for new stem cells, and destroy cancer cells. Matching patients and donors is a complex process of matching close HLA types. The doctor will select donors who match on a basic level.
What happens in the bone marrow transplant procedure?
The preparation for a bone marrow transplant may vary depending on the disease needing transplant, the type of transplant, and your tolerance for some medicines. Generally, high doses of chemotherapy or radiation may be included for the preparations. This therapy is needed to treat the malignancy and make enough space in the bone marrow for new cells to grow. This process is called ablative due to the effect on bone marrow.
The bone marrow produces most of the blood cells in our body. An empty marrow is required to make space for the new stem cells to grow well and form a new blood cell production system. After chemotherapy or radiation, the bone marrow is inserted through the venous catheter into the blood. This isn’t a surgical procedure to insert the marrow into bone, but is like having a blood transfusion. These stem cells will find their way into bone marrow and start producing new healthy blood cells. After the transplant is complete, supportive care is provided to treat an infection, any side effects of the treatment, and possible complications. This includes close monitoring of vital signs, frequent blood tests, measurement of fluid output and input, and providing a clean environment. After the new bone marrow cells reach the marrow, they will grow into white and red blood cells as well as platelets. This process, known as engraftment, may take 2-4 weeks.
Also Read– All You Need to Know About Bone Marrow Transplant
Risk factors for a bone marrow transplant donor
Donors might experience bone and muscle pain or headaches, similar to the flu or a cold, for a few days before collection. This is a side effect of filgrastim injections that may disappear right after donation. Other side effects are trouble sleeping,nausea, and tiredness. Around 2.4% of people who donate bone marrow may experience a serious complication, according to the National Marrow Donor Program. Few bone marrow donors might suffer long-term complications.
How is a bone marrow transplant different from a Stem Cell Transplant?
A stem cell transplant generally uses stem cells from a donor’s bloodstream. This is called peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Whereas, in bone marrow transplant, stem cells are used from either your bone marrow or the donor’s bone marrow. Moreover, a stem cell transplant is the most common type of transplant. The only real distinction between a stem cell transplant and a bone marrow transplant is in the method of collecting stem cells.
Time Taken for the Bone Marrow Transplant procedure
The procedure generally takes 1-2 hours. The procedure is carried out a day or two after conditioning is finished. The stem cells are passed slowly into the body through the central line. This process may take about a couple of hours. The transplant will not be painful and you will be awake throughout. You may go home the same day or the next morning. One may feel sore as well as weak for a few days. They can also take cells directly from blood through a procedure called apheresis.
Rate of Survival after Bone Marrow Transplant
People with a bone marrow transplant, who can survive for around five years after undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant without any symptoms of relapse of disease, have more chances of surviving for more than 15 years. But, a normal life expectancy isn’t completely achieved. Around 62% of bone marrow transplant patients survived for a minimum of 365 days, and 89% survived at least one more year. The survival rate,life expectancy and quality of life after the transplant have improved with more accurate matching with donors.
How can I Prepare myself before Bone Marrow Transplant?
Before a bone marrow transplant surgery, a few tests are needed. These include a chest X-ray, blood tests, heart tests, a bone marrow biopsy, and PET scan. Donors are also asked to complete some tests. The patient will have to take a drug called filgrastim, which helps bone marrow to produce and release stem cells. A doctor selects 3-4 donors whose HLA matches the candidate at the basic level. Then, the doctor asks for more tests to find out which donor very closely matches the patient. If patients have several matches, the doctor is to consider other factors like the donor’s blood type, gender, age and BMI.
Is there any chance of failure in BMT Surgery?
Graft failure is more common when the donor and patient aren’t matched properly and when the patient gets stem cells that have the T-cells removed. Graft failure may also happen because of recurrent disease, infection, or in case the stem cell count of donated marrow is insufficient to cause engraftment. A common treatment for graft failure is another transplant. A second transplant might use cells from a different donor or the same donor. In case you underwent a cord blood transplant, you can’t get more cells from the same cord blood unit.
How successful is a bone marrow transplant today’s date?
The success rate of bone marrow transplant is about 60 to 85%. Patients who have an allogeneic transplant for non-malignant conditions have a success rate of 70-90% with related matches and 36-65% with unrelated donors. There are numerous factors that determine the success rate of BMT, such as age of the patient, match with the donor,medical condition of the patient, type of more marrow, post-surgical complications, etc.
Does Health Insurance cover Bone Marrow Transplant?
Coverage of bone marrow transplant for health insurance depends upon the country an insurance belongs to. Many health insurance providers in India provide coverage for bone marrow transplants under critical disease health insurance plans. However, most health insurance plans generally do not offer coverage for stem-cell transplants except bone-marrow surgery.
What kind of follow-up care is required during recovery?
After undergoing a bone or marrow transplant, the immune system is weak and the patient is prone to infection. You need to pay attention to complete hygiene. After the last session, your doctor will check the blood every day to find out how well the transplant has been. They will test whether new cells are beginning to grow in bone marrow. Some individuals can leave the hospital soon after the surgery, while others may need to stay for many weeks. The dedicated medical team will continue to evaluate the person’s recovery for up to one year. The long-term follow-up care is provided by a nurse practitioner who is trained in taking care of transplant survivors. She will focus on preventing, identifying, and controlling all side effects that may have related to your transplant.