Know about Double Valve Replacement

Know about Double Valve Replacement

Overview

Double valve replacement surgery is a surgical procedure performed to replace both the mitral valve and the aortic valve in the heart. These valves play crucial roles in ensuring the proper flow of blood through the heart. When either or both of these valves become damaged or diseased, it can lead to problems such as regurgitation (leakage of blood backward through the valve) or stenosis (narrowing of the valve), which can impair the heart’s ability to pump blood efficiently.

During double valve replacement surgery, the damaged valves are removed and replaced with artificial prosthetic valves. These prosthetic valves can be mechanical (made from materials like metal or plastic) or biological (made from animal tissue). The choice of valve depends on factors such as the patient’s age, overall health, and lifestyle considerations.

>>Indications

Indications for double valve replacement (DVR) surgery can include:

  • Severe stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of both the mitral and aortic valves.
  • Symptoms of heart valve disease such as shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and dizziness despite medical treatment.
  • Progressive deterioration of heart function despite medical therapy.
  • Development of complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) associated with valve disease.
  • Contraindications or unsuitability for less invasive treatments such as valve repair or transcatheter valve replacement.
  • Significant impairment of daily activities and quality of life due to valve disease.
  • Presence of other cardiac conditions that necessitate surgical intervention, such as coronary artery disease or aortic aneurysm.

>>Preoperative Assessment

Before proceeding with DVR surgery, patients undergo an extensive evaluation process. This includes a thorough medical history review, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies. These assessments help the medical team determine the severity of valve disease, assess overall cardiac function, identify any associated comorbidities, and formulate an optimal surgical plan.

>>Surgical Procedure

DVR surgery typically involves a median sternotomy approach, where an incision is made along the sternum to access the heart. Once the heart is exposed, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is established, redirecting blood flow away from the heart and lungs. With the heart in a motionless state, the surgeon meticulously excises the diseased aortic and mitral valves and replaces them with prosthetic valves. The choice between mechanical and bioprosthetic valves depends on factors such as patient age, lifestyle, and the presence of anticoagulation contraindications.

>>Types of Valve Prostheses

Mechanical valves, constructed from durable materials like metal or carbon, offer longevity but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent clot formation. Bioprosthetic valves, derived from animal or human tissue, do not necessitate long-term anticoagulation but may have a limited lifespan. The selection of valve type is tailored to each patient’s individual needs and preferences, taking into account factors such as age, lifestyle, and the presence of comorbidities.

>>Risks and Complications

Despite advancements in surgical techniques and perioperative care, DVR surgery carries inherent risks. These include bleeding, infection, valve dysfunction, stroke, and arrhythmias. Close monitoring and prompt management of these complications are essential to optimize patient outcomes and minimize adverse events.

>>Recovery and Rehabilitation

Following DVR surgery, patients typically spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) for close monitoring before transitioning to a step-down unit or regular hospital room. The postoperative recovery period involves pain management, respiratory therapy, physical rehabilitation, and close monitoring of cardiac function. Cardiac rehabilitation programs may be recommended to aid in recovery and improve cardiovascular health.

Conclusion

Double valve replacement surgery represents a significant milestone in the treatment of severe valvular heart disease affecting both the aortic and mitral valves. With careful patient selection, meticulous surgical technique, and comprehensive postoperative care, DVR surgery can significantly improve patient outcomes and enhance their quality of life. Ongoing advancements in surgical technology and perioperative management continue to refine the safety and efficacy of this life-saving procedure, offering hope to patients facing complex valvular heart disease.

Reviewed By :- Amit Bansal
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Vishwas Kaushik

Dr. Vishwas Kaushik, an accomplished Belgorod State University graduate with an MBBS, known for his impactful contributions to healthcare. Driven by a passion for global well-being, he seamlessly led domestic operations at VMV Group of Companies and orchestrated success at Clear Medi Cancer Centre. His adept team management and operational skills have positioned him as a luminary in healthcare tourism, shaping a future where compassionate, world-class medical care knows no boundaries.

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