Dr. Mohamed Ahmed Helmy is an acclaimed Consultant Cardiac Surgeon at Zulekha Hospital, Sharjah, UAE. He has 25+ years of medical experience and he specialises in cardiology. He has completed his M.B.B.S and also pursued a master's degree in Cardiothoracic Surgery. He has a keen interest in Adult Cardiac Surgery, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Arterial Revascularization, Aortic root surgery, Aortic Aneurysm, Valve surgery and repair and Minimal Invasive Cardiac Surgery as well.
Dr. Helmy was formerly Professor of Cardiac Surgery at Cairo University Kasr al Ainy Hospital and was also Consultant of cardiac surgery at Nasser Institute Hospital. He is an eminent member of the European Society of cardiothoracic surgery and also an esteemed reviewer and co-editor of the Egyptian Journal of cardiothoracic surgery. He is active in a media interaction on topics like saturated fats and unsaturated fats and heart diseases. He has numerous publications to his name such as Mitral valve replacement in the presence of severe pulmonary hypertension, Repair of chronic ischaemic mitral regurge using mitral ring, Posterior approach Aortic root enlargement in Redo Aortic valve Replacement risk factors, Surgical treatment of isolated native tricuspid valve endocarditis six years single institution, Coronary artery bypass grafting off-pump with no Aortic touch and Acute Aortic Dissection involving the Arch and the Ascending Aorta too. He is one of the best cardiologist in the United Arab Emirates.
A Bentall procedure is a surgery conducted to correct problems associated with the largest artery in the body, the aorta. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Thus, any problem with this important artery may affect the rest of the body and cause serious complications.
A Bentall operation is conducted to correct problems associated with the aorta. Some of the problems that are resolved with the help of a Bentall surgery include the following:
In the United States Coronary artery bypass graft which is a common kind of an open heart surgery if found to be executed in good numbers. Cardiothoracic surgeons are the doctors who are involved in performing the procedure on the concerned patients. This kind of procedure is very appropriate for coronary heart diseases which can become a life-threatening issue later.
When the heart gets deprived of rich oxygenated blood there is chest pain and discomfort felt by the patient. This pain is referred to as angina. Breathlessness and fatigue are some of the other kinds of problems that are associated with coronary heart disease. In worse case scenario a heart attack which can be life-threatening may affect the patient severely
Coronary artery bypass surgery aims at improving the general blood circulation to the heart. A healthy artery or vein is taken the body and is grafted or connected to the blocked coronary artery for the purpose of bypassing. This artery or vein goes around the blocked portion of the coronary artery and establishes a new path for the blood to flow to the heart thus reducing the chance of a heart attack. In one surgery surgeons can bypass multiple coronary arteries. Severe blockages can be treated with this procedure.
Heart valve diseases occur due to improper functioning of the valves. Sometimes a valve does not open or does not close proper. In this condition, the blood does not flow properly and requires valve replacement. The important valves present in human body are aortic valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve and pulmonary valve. If a valve cannot be repaired, then a heart valve replacement surgery is performed.
Heart valve replacement surgery is the replacement of heart valves with artificial valves or bioprosthesis. It is an alternative treatment to valve repair.
Valve replacement includes four procedures:
The aortic valve and the mitral valve replacements are the most common. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are uncommon in adults.
Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
It is a procedure in which a diseased aortic valve is replaced with an artificial heart valve. Many diseases affect the aortic valve; the valve can either become leaky or partially blocked. Recent aortic valve replacement procedures include open-heart surgery via a sternotomy, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of an open heart surgery that intends to improve the flow of blood to the heart. It involves the placement of a coronary artery bypass graft, which is retrieved from a healthy artery in the body, and placed in the position of the blocked portion of the artery that supplies blood to the heart. CABG surgery is a complex, yet common procedure.
A waxy substance called plaque may deposit in good amount in the coronary arteries of the heart over a period of time. As time advances, the plaque starts hardening and eventually ruptures and breaks open. The plaque interferes with blood flow as arteries grow narrow at the affected region. A blood clot develops when the plaque ruptures. The artery may get blocked completely is the size of the clot is big enough to stop the flow of blood to the heart. This may eventually lead to serious events such as heart attack and also put the individual at the risk of death.
The person may experience chest pain and discomfort when the heart is deprived of rich oxygenated blood This pain is referred to as angina. Breathlessness and fatigue are some of the other problems associated with coronary heart disease.
Coronary artery bypass surgery aims at improving the overall blood circulation to the heart. A part of healthy artery or vein from another part of the body is taken and is grafted or connected to the blocked coronary artery for bypass. This artery or vein goes around the blocked portion of the coronary artery and establishes a new path for the blood to flow to the heart, thus reducing the chance of a heart attack. In a single surgery, surgeons can bypass multiple coronary arteries. Severe blockages can be treated with this procedure.
CABG is conducted when there are one or two blockages in the artery. High risk CABG is conducted when there are multiple blockages in the artery and the blood flow to the heart is severely restricted.
There are four types of valves in the human heart – the mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary valve. The mitral and the tricuspid valve are present between the upper and the lower chambers of the heart. On the other hand, the aortic and the pulmonary valve are present in the two arteries that leave the heart.
Most often, it is the mitral and the aortic valve that undergoes certain pathologic changes due to degenerative valve diseases, rheumatic heart diseases, or infective endocarditis. This may result in problems associated with the valve opening and closure.
These dysfunctions can be treated with either valve repair or valve replacement surgery. Aortic valve replacement or mitral valve replacement is carried out when just one of the valve is diseased or damaged. However, when both the valves are diseased or damaged, a double valve replacement surgery is conducted.
The heart valves present in the heart are responsible for permitting the flow of nutrient-laden blood through the heart chambers. After allowing the ushering of blood, each valve is expected to close completely. The diseased or damaged valves are not able to open and close properly, thus allowing the mixing and backflow of blood (regurgitation).
A double valve replacement surgery mainly aims at correcting the problem of valvular heart disease and involves both aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement. The mitral valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle while the aortic valve is located in between the aorta and the left ventricle.
Some of the causes of heart valve disease include the following:
Some of the symptoms of valvular heart disease include the following:
Double valve replacement surgery is a complicated procedure as compared to single valve replacement surgery. Aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement involves the replacement of just one valve but during double valve replacement surgery, both the diseased valves are removed at the same time and replaced with a synthetic (mechanical) or a biological valve.
In the case of mechanical valves, the components used are not of organic or natural origin. They are created from a combination of polyester and carbon material that the human body can tolerate and accept. Blood-thinning medications are given to patients who get mechanical valves to prevent blood clot formation.
Bioprosthetic valves or the biologic valves are either created from animal or human tissues and can be of the following types:
The choice of a particular type of valve depends on the age, overall fitness, and the ability to metabolize anticoagulant medications. The only problem associated with a bioprosthetic valve is that it may not last a lifetime and one may have to undergo a replacement again later.
Heart Port surgery is a minimally invasive technique used to conduct major heart surgeries, including heart valve replacement and cardiac bypass. During this surgery, instead of cutting through the sternum of the rib cage to access the heart, the surgeons make several small incisions between the ribs of the patients.
Heart port procedure was initially performed under direct vision. However, with advancements in medical technology, it is now possible to conduct a heart port surgery with the help of robotic or self-possessed technology. This minimally invasive heart surgery technique has several advantages over open surgery, For example, it results in quicker recovery, fewer complications and bleeding, and the incisions heal fairly quickly.
Heart port surgery may or may not involve the placement of a port that includes different catheters and cannulae components. Such advanced medical port allows for single-step cannulation and arterial return. It also provides right heart decompression, retrograde cardioplegia delivery, and percutaneous venous drainage without affecting the view of the surgical field.
Heart port surgery cannot be used to conduct all types of cardiac procedures. However, it has been most extensively used to conduct valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure.
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