Polypectomy With Hot Biopsy

India
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Overview

Colon polyps are the extra grown cells in the lining of the large intestine. These are harmless but can become cancerous on overtime. It takes many years for the conversion of a polyp in to a cancerous cell. These polyps increase the risk for colon cancer, if left untreated or unremoved. Colon polyps are seen most commonly in adults.

Colorectal cancer can be prevented if the polyps in the colon are detected in early stages and removed. The colon polyps can be detected and removed with the help of colonoscopy procedure. The polyps in the colon can be of different types. The type of polyp present in the colon can be identified by colonoscopic study.

Types of polyps

  • Adenomatous polyps
  • Hyperplastic polyps
  • Sessile polyps

The adenomatous polyps in bowel can be removed with a colonoscopy. These polyps are usually larger than 1 cm and consist of cancerous cells. The hyperplastic polyps in bowel do not contain cancerous cells and are not dangerous so they may not require immediate removal. The growth of the polyps can be monitored by screenings whenever required. The sessile polyps in bowel can turn as cancerous colon polyps. They grow flatly on the inner wall of the colon. These can be removed by colonoscopy.

The removal of the polyps from the colon is called as polypectomy.  Most of the colon polyps can be removed by colonoscopy. Colonoscopy can also be called as sigmoidoscopy.

Symptoms of colon polyps

The most common symptom of colon polyps is blood in stool. The condition itself does not result in any major colon polyps symtpoms. As a result, a majority of people do not experience or notice any colon polyps symptoms.

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Before the Treatment

Preparation before the procedure

Before scheduling the patient for the surgery, the following are confirmed by the healthcare team.

  • Past health history
  • Past medical history
  • Blood reports
  • Identified polyps pictures of the colon that are examined by barium enemas or X-rays
  • A diagnostic colonoscopy report

Instructions given to the patients before the procedure

Specific instructions will be given to the patient regarding diet to empty the colon before the procedure for the clear view of the colon walls. Some instructions include:

  • Clear liquid diet
  • Stop the other medications one week before the procedure
  • Laxatives for easy bowel movement
  • Enemas in the rectum to stimulate the bowel movement
  • Nothing should be taken in the night before the procedure
  • Comfortable clothing should be worn
  • Diabetes patients should consult the doctor regarding the insulin dose

How it is Performed

Procedure of Colon Polypectomy

Polypectomy is performed by the help of a colonoscope. The small sized polyps can be removed by inserting an instrument into the colonoscope by which the small pieces of the polyp tissue are snipped off. The large sized polyps can be removed with the help of a noose or a snare. The base of the polyp is burnt with the electric cautery. Sedatives will be given to the patient before starting the procedure.

Steps of the procedure

The duration of the polypectomy procedure takes nearly 30 to 60 minutes.

  • Sedative will be given to the patient for relaxation.
  • The patient will be made to lie down on the side or back.
  • A colonoscope with a long flexible tube will be inserted through the anus of the patient, and pushed up to the colon through the rectum.
  • This colonoscope aid air into the colon for easy opening.
  • With the help of the colonoscope, the polyp can be located exactly and it will be snipped off by the help of a wire snare if the size is small.
  • The larger polyps are burned and destroyed by passing an electric current at the base of the polyp.
  • The electric current also helps to stop the bleeding and closing the wound in the wall of the colon.
  • If the polyps cannot be removed by the electric current, then a laproscopic surgical procedure will be followed by special surgical tools and by making small incisions in the abdomen.

Recovery

Aftercare and recovery

It may take two weeks for complete recovery of the patient after the procedure. Spicy foods, coffee, tea, alcohol should be avoided for 2 to 3 days after the surgery. The patient should talk to the doctor if any signs of fever, chills, redness, pain, swelling and discharge from the rectum are observed.

Complications of the procedure

  • Damage to the colon wall
  • Infections can occur in colon and rectum
  • Bleeding can be observed from the rectum till 3 to 4 days of the procedure
  • Patients with diabetes, blood-clotting disorders may have increased risk for complications.

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