Dr. Dharambir Sethi is an ear, nose, throat (ENT) surgeon practicing at Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital, Singapore. He is a national as well as an international leader in the field of Nose and Sinus surgery. He has been the recipient of many prestigious awards, namely, Honorary Membership of the South African Society of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck surgery, Malaysian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons, Honor Award from the American Academy of Otolaryngology and Pioneer of ASEAN Rhinology Award by the President of ASEAN ORL Foundation. He has also been a Fellow of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh, UK, Fellow of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Fellow of the American Academy of Otolaryngology & Head-Neck Surgery, USA. additionally, he is also a member of the American Academy of Facial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, USA. He holds the degree of Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Punjabi University, India. In his early years, he was also featured as an entrepreneur of the SGH. He has received international recognition for his work in endoscopic pituitary and skull base surgery.
Presently, Dr. Sethi is a visiting consultant at the Department of Otolaryngology (SGH) as well as the Singapore National Eye Centre. He has presented more than 50 instructional courses as an instructor at the American Academy of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery. He is a renowned speaker, sought by many who has delivered over 650 scientific presentations, including keynote addresses in more than 18 countries including the United States, Canada, Europe, Turkey, Egypt, South Africa, India, China, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Middle East, Pakistan, Taiwan, Philippines, Australia, and Brazil. He has published 2 books, 12 book chapters and over 50 peer-reviewed articles and also serves on the editorial and review boards of several scientific journals. Several workshops in endoscopic sinus surgery all over the world have been organised by him.
Cochlear implant is one of the several ways to treat hearing loss. It is an electronic device, a part of which lies on the cochlea (inner ear) and behind the ear that helps stimulate the nerve.
A cochlear implant is advised to a person suffering from complete deafness or partial hearing loss in one or both the ears. The device is used to bypass the usual or normal mechanism by which a person is able to hear external sounds.
Cochlear implant is typically suggested to patient with sensorineural hearing loss. This condition may arise when there is a damage to the tiny hair that are present on cochlea. These tiny hears catch the vibration of an external sound and transfer it to the auditory nerve, which then sends the signal to the part of brain responsible for hearing.
In cases of damaged cochlear hair, the vibrations are not picked up and no signal is sent to the auditory nerve. In such patients, a cochlear implant can help transmit the signal directly to the auditory nerve.
A typical cochlear implant consists of two parts – one is the stimulator, while the other one is a processor.
Pinnaplasty is a type of a surgical procedure used for the correction of prominent ears. This procedure is also known as otoplasty or ear pinning. This ear plastic surgery is conducted on people of both the sexes and of all ages, who wish to correct their ears that tend to stick out.
Some people may not bother about the “bat” shape of their ears, but, for others, continuous comments from others can lead to distress, particularly during school years. Pinnaplasty is the best and simple procedure that can solve the problem safely and quickly.
Ear pinning surgery involves making an incision just behind the ear in the natural fold where the ear joins the head. This lets the surgeon reshape the year by removing some part of the cartilage. The surgeon can then use permanent internal stitches to keep the ears in their new place.
The best candidates for pinnaplasty include both children and teenagers, although adults may choose to undergo the surgery as well. This surgery is not recommended for children younger than five as their ears will still be growing and developing.
You can go for pinnaplasty if your ears are protruding or sticking out at a prominent angle from your head. Pinnaplasty is typically carried out in people who have one ear that sticks out much more than the other. In such cases, pinnaplasty can restore the symmetry of ears.
Nasal polyps are fleshy swellings or polypoidal, benign/non-cancerous masses that develop in the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They usually occur in both nostrils, though unilateral polyps rarely occur. Polyp formation in the nasal cavity is due to chronic allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, and, less commonly due to underlying disease such as cystic fibrosis.
Patients with large polyps present with nasal obstruction (breathing difficulty), persistent nasal discharge (rhinorrhea), sinus infection, and loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) for a prolonged duration.
People from all age groups can get affected by ear disorders and hearing impairment problems. In the United States, a survey revealed that under the age of 65, over 60 per cent of the population suffers from problems related to hearing loss. However, almost 25 per cent of people aged above 65 experience a significant loss of hearing. Thankfully, different types of ENT surgeries are available to treat problems related to the ear.
Most often, people are diagnosed with problems related to the eardrum, or tympanum, and the infection in the cells of the mastoid bone. The tympanum is the thin membranous structure present between the outer and the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit on it and this enables us to hear.
A repair surgery called tympanoplasty is required to treat a perforation or hole in the eardrum. The middle ear is sterile but due to rupture of the eardrum, an infection can also occur. It may also be required for repairing of tiny bones present behind the eardrum or ossicles in the mastoid bone. This repair is known as mastoidectomy.
Tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy are therefore conducted together in many cases. This procedure is known as tympano-mastoidectomy.
There are several reasons that may cause loss of hearing, including the following:
An ear infection that has grown very severe and left untreated for long
The injury suffered by the ear
Ear subjected to excessive levels of noise
Hearing loss as a result of age
Some of the common symptoms of a puncture in eardrum include the following:
Sharp pain in the ear that disappears abruptly
Excessive pressure, which will suddenly disappear with the rupture and pus formation in the ear
Loss of hearing
Type 1 tympanoplasty or myringoplasty is the surgery that ensures restoration of the eardrum that got perforated with drafting
Type II tympanoplasty addresses membrane perforations with erosion in the bone malleus. Grafting is done on the incus bone or in the remains of the malleus.
Type III tympanoplasty is meant for destruction of two ossicles and intact and mobile stapes bone. A graft is placed on the stapes and it provides protection for the total assembly.
Type IV tympanoplasty is useful for cases of ossicular destruction, which has all or part of the arch of stapes included. A graft is placed around the mobile stapes footplate
Type V tympanoplasty is useful when the footplate of the stapes bone is fixed.
For treating Cholesteatoma, tympanoplasty can be combined with stapedectomy and mastoidectomy and in many cases, a second operation is required to ensure the infection is totally eradicated.
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